How to format your references using the Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain E. The class of 2005. Belgium: a particle physicist on track. Science 2005;310:521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Otsuki M, Matsukawa H. Systematic breakdown of Amontons’ law of friction for an elastic object locally obeying Amontons’ law. Sci Rep 2013;3:1586.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ice GE, Budai JD, Pang JWL. The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science. Science 2011;334:1234–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kefalov V, Fu Y, Marsh-Armstrong N, Yau K-W. Role of visual pigment properties in rod and cone phototransduction. Nature 2003;425:526–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Werner M. Global Displacements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Manzullo EF, Gonzalez CE, Escalante CP, Yeung S-CJ, editors. Oncologic Emergencies. 1st ed. 2016. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Shaw LJ. Healthcare Costs of Angina in Women. In: Kaski JC, Eslick GD, Bairey Merz CN, editors. Chest Pain with Normal Coronary Arteries: A Multidisciplinary Approach, London: Springer; 2013, p. 49–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. Teenage Quasar Tries to Hide in its Galactic Room. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Better Management Controls are Needed to Improve FAA’s Safety Enforcement and Compliance Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terry EJ. In search of leadership: A look at women presidents in Georgia’s two-year colleges and technical colleges. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. The Joy of a “Girl Racer” and a Wish for More. New York Times 1998:810.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
AbbreviationDiabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
ISSN (print)0168-8227
General Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles