How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hassett JP. Chemistry. Dissolved natural organic matter as a microreactor. Science. 2006 Mar 24;311(5768):1723–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Towbin JA, Bowles NE. The failing heart. Nature. 2002 Jan 10;415(6868):227–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qian L, Winfree E, Bruck J. Neural network computation with DNA strand displacement cascades. Nature. 2011 Jul 20;475(7356):368–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kumatani A, Li Y, Darmawan P, Minari T, Tsukagoshi K. On practical charge injection at the metal/organic semiconductor interface. Sci Rep. 2013 Jan 4;3:1026.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Oyama T. Post-Crisis Risk Management. 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.; 2010.
An edited book
Chli M, Wilde P de, editors. Convergence and Knowledge Processing in Multi-Agent Systems. London: Springer; 2009. XV, 143 p. (Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing).
A chapter in an edited book
Wiesinger H. 5 Arginine, Citrulline, and Ornithine. In: Lajtha A, Oja SS, Schousboe A, Saransaari P, editors. Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Amino Acids and Peptides in the Nervous System. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 99–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Up To 40% Of Some Herbal Supplements Are Mislabelled Or Contain Adulterants [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Intermodal Approach to Transportation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Jan. Report No.: 144264.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maldonado JA. Searching for Confirmation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Living the Bike Life. New York Times. 2017 Jan 20;MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Endoscopy
AbbreviationGastrointest. Endosc.
ISSN (print)0016-5107
ISSN (online)1097-6779
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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