How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen J. Means to an end. Cities, states, and provinces are gearing up to halt their AIDS epidemics—though the definition of success varies. Science. 2015 Jul 17;349(6245):226–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng G, Zheng S-Y. Construction of a high-performance magnetic enzyme nanosystem for rapid tryptic digestion. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 6;4:6947.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sugase K, Dyson HJ, Wright PE. Mechanism of coupled folding and binding of an intrinsically disordered protein. Nature. 2007 Jun 21;447(7147):1021–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yan J-J, Sun J-T, You Y-Z, Wu D-C, Hong C-Y. Growing hyperbranched polymers using natural sunlight. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 8;3:2841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coussy O. Poromechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Steinhaus H. Mathematician for All Seasons: Recollections and Notes, Vol. 2 (1945–1968). 1st ed. 2016. Burns RG, Szymaniec I, Weron A, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XI, 403 p. 26 illus., 20 illus. in color. (Vita Mathematica; vol. 19).
A chapter in an edited book
Rinofner-Kreidl S. On Naturalizing Free. In: Boi L, Kerszberg P, Patras F, editors. Rediscovering Phenomenology: Phenomenological Essays on Mathematical Beings, Physical Reality, Perception and Consciousness. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. p. 125–64. (Phaenomenologica).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Blog post
Taub B. Quitting Smoking Reverses Dopamine Deficits In The Brain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Institute of Standards and Technology: Carryover Balances for the Advanced Technology Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Mar. Report No.: RCED-00-71R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conway AH. Signs and symptoms of moral injury in female vietnam veterans: A qualitative examination of the nvvrs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets Fall Again, and Bruce Is Pulled During Rally. New York Times. 2016 Sep 21;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Endoscopy
AbbreviationGastrointest. Endosc.
ISSN (print)0016-5107
ISSN (online)1097-6779
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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