How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker M. Fountain of funding for youth. Nature. 2007 Jul 19;448(7151):384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Löytynoja A, Goldman N. Evolution. Uniting alignments and trees. Science. 2009 Jun 19;324(5934):1528–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ismail-Zadeh A, Honda S, Tsepelev I. Linking mantle upwelling with the lithosphere descent [corrected] and the Japan Sea evolution: a hypothesis. Sci Rep. 2013 Jan 25;3:1137.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chang B, Chen Y, Zhao Y, Bruick RK. JMJD6 is a histone arginine demethylase. Science. 2007 Oct 19;318(5849):444–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandler C. The Science of ADHD. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Dumas M, Reichert M, Shan M-C, editors. Business Process Management: 6th International Conference, BPM 2008, Milan, Italy, September 2-4, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. XIII, 399 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 5240).
A chapter in an edited book
Roth W-M, Goulart MIM, Plakitsi K. Margin|Center. In: Goulart MIM, Plakitsi K, editors. Science Education during Early Childhood: A Cultural-Historical Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 91–110. (Cultural Studies of Science Education).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Blog post
Hale T. US Nuclear Weapons Computers Still Use Floppy Disks [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Market Research: Better Documentation Needed to Inform Future Procurements at Selected Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Oct. Report No.: GAO-15-8.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farooq AS. Singing the blues: Indicators of mental illness among nursing home elderly [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. American Is Suspended. New York Times. 2014 Jan 15;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Endoscopy
AbbreviationGastrointest. Endosc.
ISSN (print)0016-5107
ISSN (online)1097-6779
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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