How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sardar Z. Beyond the troubled relationship. Nature. 2007 Jul 12;448(7150):131–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Myers RA, Worm B. Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature. 2003 May 15;423(6937):280–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Javaux EJ, Marshall CP, Bekker A. Organic-walled microfossils in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits. Nature. 2010 Feb 18;463(7283):934–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Davidson AJ, Ernst P, Wang Y, Dekens MPS, Kingsley PD, Palis J, et al. cdx4 mutants fail to specify blood progenitors and can be rescued by multiple hox genes. Nature. 2003 Sep 18;425(6955):300–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kassapoglou C. Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Valavanis KP, Vachtsevanos GJ, editors. Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. 1238 illus., 948 illus. in color. eReference.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang K, Wen Z, Du B, Song G. A Multiple-Indicators Approach to Monitoring Urban Sustainable Development. In: Carreiro MM, Song YC, Wu J, editors. Ecology, Planning, and Management of Urban Forests: International Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer; 2008. p. 35–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

Blog post
Andrew E. After Ten Years, Spacecraft Will End Life As Just Another Crater On Mercury’s Surface. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Systems: Examinations of Non-Federal Hospital Information Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Jun. Report No.: IMTEC-87-21.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomes MA. Cognitive science approaches to actor training: Interrogating conceptual language [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Netflix Signs New Deal With Rhimes. New York Times. 2017 Aug 14;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Endoscopy
AbbreviationGastrointest. Endosc.
ISSN (print)0016-5107
ISSN (online)1097-6779
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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