How to format your references using the Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter, M. (2001). Cancer research. Transatlantic war over BRCA1 patent. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5523), 1818.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neumann, G. A., & Mazarico, E. (2009). Planetary science. Seeing the missing half. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5916), 885–887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, H., Wisedchaisri, G., & Gonen, T. (2013). Crystal structure of a nitrate/nitrite exchanger. Nature, 497(7451), 647–651.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhao, X., Xu, Z., Zheng, B., & Gao, C. (2013). Macroscopic assembled, ultrastrong and H(2)SO(4)-resistant fibres of polymer-grafted graphene oxide. Scientific reports, 3, 3164.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levy, D. (2011). Practical Diabetes Care. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Croon, J. A. (2005). Matching Properties of Deep Sub-Micron MOS Transistors. (W. Sansen & H. E. Maes, Eds.) (Vol. 851). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Goodman, R. L., & Katzew, J. (2011). Curriculum Development: What We Can Learn from International Curricula. In H. Miller, L. Grant, & A. Pomson (Eds.), International Handbook of Jewish Education (pp. 63–81). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016, June 29). Animals Inherit Their Mother’s Social Network. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Aviation Safety: Problems Persist in FAA’s Inspection Program (No. RCED-92-14). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galvan, R. (2015). A mixed-methods study of mathematics and science achievement of refugee students in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard, A., Hubbard, B., & Fisher, I. (2017, April 15). As Atrocities Mount in Syria, Justice Seems Out of Reach. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Balter 2001; Neumann and Mazarico 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Neumann and Mazarico 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFuzzy Optimization and Decision Making
AbbreviationFuzzy Optim. Decis. Mak.
ISSN (print)1568-4539
ISSN (online)1573-2908
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

Other styles