How to format your references using the Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2000). Green light for plans to sell off US helium reserve. Nature, 405(6786), 496.
A journal article with 2 authors
Okamoto, N., & Inouye, I. (2005). A secondary symbiosis in progress? Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5746), 287.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biswas, A. K., Atulasimha, J., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (2014). An error-resilient non-volatile magneto-elastic universal logic gate with ultralow energy-delay product. Scientific reports, 4, 7553.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
He, H., Wang, Y., Ma, Q., Ma, J., Chu, B., Ji, D., et al. (2014). Mineral dust and NOx promote the conversion of SO2 to sulfate in heavy pollution days. Scientific reports, 4, 4172.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knowles, R. (2012). 200 Contractual Problems and their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Maji, P. (2014). Scalable Pattern Recognition Algorithms: Applications in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. (S. Paul, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Vries, J. de. (2008). Cross-border co-operation in the Rhine-Scheldt Delta The long road of institution building. In E. Korcelli-Olejniczak & R. Knippschild (Eds.), Cross-border Governance and Sustainable Spatial Development: Mind the Gaps! (pp. 51–66). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, August 17). 7 Strange And Surprising Ways That Humans Have Recently Evolved. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Motor Carriers: Establishing System for Self-Reporting Equipment Problems Appears Feasible, but Safety Benefits Questionable and Costs Unknown (No. GAO-17-132). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Razo, S. I. (2009). Parenting practices of Latina mothers and children’s behavior outcomes (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2016, October 23). Mom Started a Job, So Dad Is Nervous About All His New Responsibilities. New York Times, p. C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2000; Okamoto and Inouye 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Okamoto and Inouye 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFuzzy Optimization and Decision Making
AbbreviationFuzzy Optim. Decis. Mak.
ISSN (print)1568-4539
ISSN (online)1573-2908
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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