How to format your references using the Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gerrish, P. (2001). The rhythm of microbial adaptation. Nature, 413(6853), 299–302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Logan, B. E., & Rabaey, K. (2012). Conversion of wastes into bioelectricity and chemicals by using microbial electrochemical technologies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6095), 686–690.
A journal article with 3 authors
Traag, V. A., Krings, G., & Van Dooren, P. (2013). Significant scales in community structure. Scientific reports, 3, 2930.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Curie, C., Panaviene, Z., Loulergue, C., Dellaporta, S. L., Briat, J. F., & Walker, E. L. (2001). Maize yellow stripe1 encodes a membrane protein directly involved in Fe(III) uptake. Nature, 409(6818), 346–349.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robinson, N., Hall, G., & Fawcett, W. (2011). How to Survive in Anaesthesia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kulshreshtha, M. (2012). Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. (R. Mathur, Ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Molteni, G., Bergamini, G., & Soloperto, D. (2015). Injection Laryngoplasty by Means of Microlaryngoscopy. In G. Bergamini, L. Presutti, & G. Molteni (Eds.), Injection Laryngoplasty (pp. 43–50). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, September 21). Plastic Banknotes: New Fingerprint Technique Means Criminals Can’t Avoid Capture. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Amendment No. 1--Documentation Requirements When Assessing Control Risk at Maximum for Controls Significantly Dependent Upon Computerized Information Systems (Superseded by GAO-03-673G) A-GAGAS-1, May 1999 (No. A-GAGAS-1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Narita, D. (2008). Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and climate change mitigation: An analysis of economic optimality and policy making (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, February 18). CLINTON’S ECONOMIC PLAN: The Campaign; Gambling That a Tax-Cut Promise Was Not Taken Seriously. New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gerrish 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gerrish 2001; Logan and Rabaey 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Logan and Rabaey 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Curie et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFuzzy Optimization and Decision Making
AbbreviationFuzzy Optim. Decis. Mak.
ISSN (print)1568-4539
ISSN (online)1573-2908
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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