How to format your references using the Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bromm, V. (2008). Astronomy. The cosmic Rosetta stone. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5889), 647–648.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burt, D., & Pourquie, O. (2003). Genetics. Chicken genome--science nuggets to come soon. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5626), 1669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dangl, J. L., Horvath, D. M., & Staskawicz, B. J. (2013). Pivoting the plant immune system from dissection to deployment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6147), 746–751.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, J. E., Fusco, M. L., Hessell, A. J., Oswald, W. B., Burton, D. R., & Saphire, E. O. (2008). Structure of the Ebola virus glycoprotein bound to an antibody from a human survivor. Nature, 454(7201), 177–182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heads, G. (2017). Living Mindfully. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lambin, E. F., & Geist, H. (Eds.). (2006). Land-Use and Land-Cover Change: Local Processes and Global Impacts. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wassell, S. R. (2015). Art and Mathematics Before the Quattrocento: A Context for Understanding Renaissance Architecture. In M. J. Ostwald (Ed.), Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future: Volume I: Antiquity to the 1500s (pp. 67–80). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, July 21). World’s Largest Megaraptor Was Nothing Short Of Terrifying. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Federal Research: Information on DOE’s Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program (No. GAO-16-486R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueck, K. (2017). Physiology of the Invasive Apple Snail, Pomacea maculata (Perry, 1810), in Louisiana (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, December 2). Jeter Could Leave the Yankees To Expand His Horizons, and Attire. New York Times, p. B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bromm 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Bromm 2008; Burt and Pourquie 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burt and Pourquie 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFuzzy Optimization and Decision Making
AbbreviationFuzzy Optim. Decis. Mak.
ISSN (print)1568-4539
ISSN (online)1573-2908
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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