How to format your references using the Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reynolds, A. M. (2014). Mussels realize Weierstrassian Lévy walks as composite correlated random walks. Scientific reports, 4, 4409.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sergienko, O. V., & Hindmarsh, R. C. A. (2013). Regular patterns in frictional resistance of ice-stream beds seen by surface data inversion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6162), 1086–1089.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robison, B. H., Reisenbichler, K. R., & Sherlock, R. E. (2005). Giant larvacean houses: rapid carbon transport to the deep sea floor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5728), 1609–1611.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ideker, T., Thorsson, V., Ranish, J. A., Christmas, R., Buhler, J., Eng, J. K., et al. (2001). Integrated genomic and proteomic analyses of a systematically perturbed metabolic network. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5518), 929–934.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrington, P. J. (2010). Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry for Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alladi, K. (Ed.). (2008). Surveys in Number Theory (Vol. 17). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kulikowski, J. L. (2012). Human Activity Supporting by Deontological Knowledgebases. In Z. S. Hippe, J. L. Kulikowski, & T. Mroczek (Eds.), Human – Computer Systems Interaction: Backgrounds and Applications 2: Part 1 (pp. 67–83). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 8). Peanut The Turtle Still Alive And Saving The World’s Oceans. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). NASA Should Provide the Congress Complete Cost Information on the Space Telescope Program (No. PSAD-80-15). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazyck, B. S. (2012). Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haberman, M., & Thrush, G. (2017, April 22). Trump Reaches Beyond West Wing for Counsel. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reynolds 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Reynolds 2014; Sergienko and Hindmarsh 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sergienko and Hindmarsh 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ideker et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFuzzy Optimization and Decision Making
AbbreviationFuzzy Optim. Decis. Mak.
ISSN (print)1568-4539
ISSN (online)1573-2908
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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