How to format your references using the Future Internet citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Internet. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leask, J. Target the fence-sitters. Nature 2011, 473, 443–445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crivoi, A.; Duan, F. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of the coffee-ring effect in evaporating colloidal droplets. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coussens, L.M.; Fingleton, B.; Matrisian, L.M. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors and cancer: trials and tribulations. Science 2002, 295, 2387–2392.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roach, P.J.; Woodward, W.H.; Castleman, A.W., Jr; Reber, A.C.; Khanna, S.N. Complementary active sites cause size-selective reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with water. Science 2009, 323, 492–495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rigo, M. Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems 1; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781119008200.
An edited book
E-Voting and Identity: Second International Conference, VOTE-ID 2009, Luxembourg, September 7-8, 2009. Proceedings; Ryan, P.Y.A., Schoenmakers, B., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5767; ISBN 9783642041341.
A chapter in an edited book
Greenberg, J.A. International Legal Developments Protecting the Autonomy Rights of Sexual Minorities: Who Should Determine the Appropriate Treatment for an Intersex Infant? In Ethics and Intersex; Sytsma, S.E., Ed.; International Library of Ethics, Law and the New Medicine; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; pp. 87–101 ISBN 9781402043130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Internet.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Sponge-Filled Wound-Blocking Syringe Saves Its Very First Life (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Tax Information Safeguard Activity Annual Report; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1984;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mullin Piette, A.J. Dialogic encounters among health care providers in pediatric critical care: A qualitative, collective case study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey, C. Controlling Her Emotions, and Now Elevating Her Game. New York Times 2017, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Internet
ISSN (online)1999-5903

Other styles