How to format your references using the Future Internet citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Internet. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohl, F. Planetary Science. Revealing Titan’s Interior. Science 2010, 327, 1338–1339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Downer, M.; Zgadzaj, R. Accelerator Physics: Surf’s up at SLAC. Nature 2014, 515, 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
GrandPré, T.; Li, S.; Strittmatter, S.M. Nogo-66 Receptor Antagonist Peptide Promotes Axonal Regeneration. Nature 2002, 417, 547–551.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
van der Bent, M.L.; Sterken, M.G.; Volkers, R.J.M.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Schmid, T.; Hajnal, A.; Kammenga, J.E.; Snoek, L.B. Loss-of-Function of β-Catenin Bar-1 Slows Development and Activates the Wnt Pathway in Caenorhabditis Elegans. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4926.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bakshi, A.B.; Prasanna, V.K. Architecture-Independent Programming for Wireless Sensor Networks; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2007; ISBN 9780470289303.
An edited book
Modeling of Soft Matter; Calderer, M.-C.T., Terentjev, E.M., Eds.; The IMA Volumes in Mathematics and its Applications; Springer: New York, NY, 2005; Vol. 141; ISBN 9780387291673.
A chapter in an edited book
Guerraggio, A.; Paoloni, G. Rome, Public Appointments, the Politician. In Vito Volterra; Paoloni, G., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 47–75 ISBN 9783642272622.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Internet.

Blog post
Luntz, S. If You Can Breathe, Thank Moss Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Station: Cost Control Problems Continue to Worsen; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edmonds, J.L. Mobility and Population Change in Northeast Mississippi: An Object-Based Seriation of Projectile Points as a Relative Paleodemographic Indicator. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University: Mississippi State, MS, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. A Subatomic Existential Crisis. New York Times 2015, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Internet
ISSN (online)1999-5903

Other styles