How to format your references using the Future Internet citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Internet. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marino, J. On the Road Again. Science 2014, 344, 1194.
A journal article with 2 authors
Queller, D.C.; Strassmann, J.E. The Many Selves of Social Insects. Science 2002, 296, 311–313.
A journal article with 3 authors
Álvarez, G.A.; Suter, D.; Kaiser, R. QUANTUM SIMULATION. Localization-Delocalization Transition in the Dynamics of Dipolar-Coupled Nuclear Spins. Science 2015, 349, 846–848.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dunah, A.W.; Jeong, H.; Griffin, A.; Kim, Y.-M.; Standaert, D.G.; Hersch, S.M.; Mouradian, M.M.; Young, A.B.; Tanese, N.; Krainc, D. Sp1 and TAFII130 Transcriptional Activity Disrupted in Early Huntington’s Disease. Science 2002, 296, 2238–2243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chateigner, D. Combined Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118622506.
An edited book
Shock Waves: 26th International Symposium on Shock Waves, Volume 1; Hannemann, K., Seiler, F., Eds.; 1st ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; ISBN 9783540851677.
A chapter in an edited book
Barford, P.; Chen, Y.; Goyal, A.; Li, Z.; Paxson, V.; Yegneswaran, V. Employing Honeynets For Network Situational Awareness. In Cyber Situational Awareness: Issues and Research; Jajodia, S., Liu, P., Swarup, V., Wang, C., Eds.; Advances in Information Security; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; pp. 71–102 ISBN 9781441901392.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Internet.

Blog post
Andrew, D. What Happens When You Add A Drop Of Liquid Nitrogen To Gasoline? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Many Federal Programs Fund Transportation Services, but Obstacles to Coordination Persist; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Llamas, A.L. ALLTAP Solutions, LLC: A Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, I. by N. An Essentially American Narrative. New York Times 2013, AR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Internet
ISSN (online)1999-5903

Other styles