How to format your references using the Future Internet citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Internet. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody, H. Gold. Nature 2013, 495, S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andreasen, R.; Sharma, M. Comment on “Neodymium-142 Evidence for Hadean Mafic Crust.” Science 2009, 325, 267; author reply 267.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho, G.; Wu, Y.; Ackerman, J.L. Detection of Hydroxyl Ions in Bone Mineral by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy. Science 2003, 300, 1123–1127.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Maiolino, R.; Schneider, R.; Oliva, E.; Bianchi, S.; Ferrara, A.; Mannucci, F.; Pedani, M.; Sogorb, M.R. A Supernova Origin for Dust in a High-Redshift Quasar. Nature 2004, 431, 533–535.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Campbell, A.K. Intracellular Calcium; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118675410.
An edited book
Towards Service Robots for Everyday Environments: Recent Advances in Designing Service Robots for Complex Tasks in Everyday Environments; Prassler, E., Zöllner, M., Bischoff, R., Burgard, W., Haschke, R., Hägele, M., Lawitzky, G., Nebel, B., Plöger, P., Reiser, U., Eds.; Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 76; ISBN 9783642251153.
A chapter in an edited book
Bednar, P.M.; Welch, C. Loitering with Intent: Dealing with Human-Intensive Systems. In Interdisciplinary Aspects of Information Systems Studies: The Italian Association for Information Systems; Marco, M.D., Casalino, N., Eds.; Physica-Verlag HD: Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 33–39 ISBN 9783790820096.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Internet.

Blog post
Andrews, R. North American Trees Won’t Save Us From Dangerous Climate Change Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Additional Cost Transparency and Design Criteria Needed for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Projects; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmgren, J.L. Instructor Responses to Rhetorical Dissent: Student Perceptions of Justice and Classroom Outcomes. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. Before Taking Shows to Audiences, Networks Try to Win Over Critics. New York Times 2016, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Internet
ISSN (online)1999-5903

Other styles