How to format your references using the Future Internet citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Internet. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Begun, D.R. Anthropology. The earliest hominins--is less more? Science 2004, 303, 1478–1480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilbert, D.T.; Wilson, T.D. Prospection: experiencing the future. Science 2007, 317, 1351–1354.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moreira, J.A.; Pacheco, J.M.; Santos, F.C. Evolution of collective action in adaptive social structures. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1521.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Calais, E.; Mattioli, G.; DeMets, C.; Nocquet, J.-M.; Stein, S.; Newman, A.; Rydelek, P. Seismology: tectonic strain in plate interiors? Nature 2005, 438, E9-10; discussion E10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martindale, W. Global Food Security and Supply; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118699287.
An edited book
Trends in Nanophysics: Theory, Experiment and Technology; Bârsan, V., Aldea, A., Eds.; Engineering Materials; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; ISBN 9783642120695.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahonen, P.; Alahuhta, P.; Daskala, B.; Delaitre, S.; Hert, P.D.; Lindner, R.; Maghiros, I.; Moscibroda, A.; Schreurs, W.; Verlinden, M. Safeguards. In Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence; Alahuhta, P., Daskala, B., Delaitre, S., Hert, P.D., Lindner, R., Maghiros, I., Moscibroda, A., Schreurs, W., Verlinden, M., Wright, D., Friedewald, M., Punie, Y., Gutwirth, S., Vildjiounaite, E., Eds.; The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010; pp. 179–251 ISBN 9789048187867.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Internet.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. What Our Ancestors’ Third Eye Reveals About The Evolution Of Mammals To Warm Blood Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office College Textbooks: Enhanced Offerings Appear to Drive Recent Price Increases; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, A.P. Reentry of Substance Abusing Female Ex-Offenders from Prison to an Urban Community. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. A Clown and a Correspondent Join the Global Elite. New York Times 2017, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Internet
ISSN (online)1999-5903

Other styles