How to format your references using the Educational Technology Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Technology Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser, D. (2015). History: From blackboards to bombs. Nature, 523(7562), 523–525.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ma, Y., & Lin, C. (2013). Microbial oxidation of Fe2+ and pyrite exposed to flux of micromolar H₂O₂ in acidic media. Scientific reports, 3, 1979.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wilkinson, J. J., Simmons, S. F., & Stoffell, B. (2013). How metalliferous brines line Mexican epithermal veins with silver. Scientific reports, 3, 2057.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zheng, J., Kwak, K., Asbury, J., Chen, X., Piletic, I. R., & Fayer, M. D. (2005). Ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5739), 1338–1343.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker, H. K., & English, P. (2011). Capital Budgeting Valuation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Camenisch, J., & Lambrinoudakis, C. (Eds.). (2011). Public Key Infrastructures, Services and Applications: 7th European Workshop, EuroPKI 2010, Athens, Greece, September 23-24, 2010. Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 6711). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Spiess-Knafl, W., & Jansen, S. A. (2014). Social Enterprises and the Financing of Different Scaling Strategies. In L. Pate & C. Wankel (Eds.), Emerging Research Directions in Social Entrepreneurship (pp. 67–83). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Technology Research and Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 27). Calbuco Volcano – Evacuations And Air-Traffic Disruption Follow Eruption. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Air Traffic Control: Software Problems at Control Centers Need Immediate Attention (No. IMTEC-92-1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cannon, C. A. (2017). Comparison of language arts scores between computerized and teacher differentiation of instruction (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2006, October 8). Suozzi Offers Plan to Shore Up Aviation Museum. New York Times, p. 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaiser 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kaiser 2015; Ma and Lin 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ma and Lin 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zheng et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Technology Research and Development
AbbreviationEduc. Technol. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)1042-1629
ISSN (online)1556-6501

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