How to format your references using the Educational Technology Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Technology Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hilton, D. (2013). Australian science needs more female fellows. Nature, 497(7447), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burdyga, T., & Wray, S. (2005). Action potential refractory period in ureter smooth muscle is set by Ca sparks and BK channels. Nature, 436(7050), 559–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kogan, A., Amasha, S., & Kastner, M. A. (2004). Photon-induced Kondo satellites in a single-electron transistor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5675), 1293–1295.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jung, H. Y., Kang, Y., Hwang, A. Y., Lee, C. K., Han, S., Kim, D.-H., et al. (2014). Origin of the improved mobility and photo-bias stability in a double-channel metal oxide transistor. Scientific reports, 4, 3765.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kharmanda, G., & El Hami, A. (2016). Reliability in Biomechanics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lionetti, T. M., Snyder, E. P., & Christner, R. W. (Eds.). (2011). A Practical Guide to Building Professional Competencies in School Psychology. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Gunasekara, A. S., Rubin, A. L., Goh, K. S., Spurlock, F. C., & Tjeerdema, R. S. (2008). Environmental Fate and Toxicology of Carbaryl. In D. M. Whitacre (Ed.), Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Vol 196 (pp. 95–121). New York, NY: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Technology Research and Development.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, June 22). Premenstrual Symptoms Linked To Inflamation. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Transportation: Status of GAO’s Open Recommendations on Transportation Policies and Programs (No. RCED-91-112). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, C. D. (2010). Migration: Lighting to evoke human responses (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2006, May 14). Big Little Snacks. New York Times, p. NJ15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hilton 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Burdyga and Wray 2005; Hilton 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burdyga and Wray 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Jung et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Technology Research and Development
AbbreviationEduc. Technol. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)1042-1629
ISSN (online)1556-6501

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