How to format your references using the Educational Technology Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Technology Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2011). More time for research: fund people not projects. Nature, 477(7366), 529–531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramesh, K. V., & Goswami, P. (2014). Assessing reliability of regional climate projections: the case of Indian monsoon. Scientific reports, 4, 4071.
A journal article with 3 authors
Padhi, A. K., Jayaram, B., & Gomes, J. (2013). Prediction of functional loss of human angiogenin mutants associated with ALS by molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific reports, 3, 1225.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yang, P., Du, C. W., Kwan, M., Liang, S. X., & Zhang, G. J. (2013). The impact of p53 in predicting clinical outcome of breast cancer patients with visceral metastasis. Scientific reports, 3, 2246.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krasner, D. (2016). A History of Modern Drama. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Griebel, M., & Schweitzer, M. A. (Eds.). (2008). Meshfree Methods for Partial Differential Equations IV (Vol. 65). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
de Garis, H. (2007). Artificial Brains. In B. Goertzel & C. Pennachin (Eds.), Artificial General Intelligence (pp. 159–174). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Technology Research and Development.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, February 13). Squid Can Recode Their Own Genetics. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Technology Transfers: Benefits of Cooperative R&D Agreements (No. RCED-95-52). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gambini, F. (2011). Leadership capacity for succession and sustainability in a family-owned private school (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, July 9). Ninth-Seeded Radwanska Exceeds Her Expectations. New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ioannidis 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ioannidis 2011; Ramesh and Goswami 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ramesh and Goswami 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Technology Research and Development
AbbreviationEduc. Technol. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)1042-1629
ISSN (online)1556-6501

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