How to format your references using the Educational Technology Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Technology Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris, E. (2007). Carbon copies. Nature, 445(7128), 584–585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kliebenstein, D. J., & Rowe, H. C. (2009). Plant science. Anti-rust antitrust. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5919), 1301–1302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blaser, E., Pylyshyn, Z. W., & Holcombe, A. O. (2000). Tracking an object through feature space. Nature, 408(6809), 196–199.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nikolov, N., Sing, D. K., Fortney, J. J., Goyal, J. M., Drummond, B., Evans, T. M., et al. (2018). An absolute sodium abundance for a cloud-free “hot Saturn” exoplanet. Nature, 557(7706), 526–529.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abner, D. J. (2016). The ETF Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gupta, S. C., Prasad, S., & Aggarwal, B. B. (Eds.). (2016). Anti-inflammatory Nutraceuticals and Chronic Diseases (Vol. 928). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lissoni, P. (2014). Melatonin in Human Cancer: Therapeutic Possibilities. In V. Srinivasan, A. Brzezinski, S. Oter, & S. D. Shillcutt (Eds.), Melatonin and Melatonergic Drugs in Clinical Practice (pp. 43–56). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Technology Research and Development.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, September 1). How Horseshoe Crab Blood Saves Millions Of Lives. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Information Technology: Continued Attention Needed to Accurately Report Federal Spending and Improve Management (No. GAO-11-831T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kapatsinski, V. (2009). The architecture of grammar in artificial grammar learning: Formal biases in the acquisition of morphophonology and the nature of the learning task (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sack, K. (2011, April 19). Deadly Twisters Renew Questions About Pressure on Emergency Budgets. New York Times, p. A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marris 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Kliebenstein and Rowe 2009; Marris 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kliebenstein and Rowe 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Nikolov et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Technology Research and Development
AbbreviationEduc. Technol. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)1042-1629
ISSN (online)1556-6501

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