How to format your references using the Educational Technology Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Technology Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McSwain, M. V. (2014). Astrophysics: Black hole found orbiting a fast rotator. Nature, 505(7483), 296–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, Y., & Xiong, Y. (2001). A p53 amino-terminal nuclear export signal inhibited by DNA damage-induced phosphorylation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5523), 1910–1915.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stollewerk, A., Schoppmeier, M., & Damen, W. G. M. (2003). Involvement of Notch and Delta genes in spider segmentation. Nature, 423(6942), 863–865.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gu, Z., Pandya, S., Samanta, A., Liu, S., Xiao, G., Meyers, C. J. G., et al. (2018). Resonant domain-wall-enhanced tunable microwave ferroelectrics. Nature, 560(7720), 622–627.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wen, S., & Huang, P. (2011). Principles of Tribology. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
An edited book
Lewis, T., & Laverty, M. (Eds.). (2015). Art’s Teachings, Teaching’s Art: Philosophical, Critical and Educational Musings (1st ed. 2015., Vol. 8). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Cevallos, M. D. (2015). Participation of Ecuadorian Women in the Maritime Oil Transportation Sector. In M. Kitada, E. Williams, & L. L. Froholdt (Eds.), Maritime Women: Global Leadership (pp. 55–65). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Technology Research and Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, November 25). Interbreeding Among Early Hominins. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Highway Safety: Causes of Injury in Automobile Crashes (No. PEMD-95-4). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zanulabe Din, M. O. (2017). Engineered Synchrony of Bacterial Lysis and its Applications (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2009, March 15). Big Breaks on Unpaid Parking Tickets, for a Limited Time Only. New York Times, p. LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McSwain 2014).
This sentence cites two references (McSwain 2014; Zhang and Xiong 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Xiong 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Gu et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Technology Research and Development
AbbreviationEduc. Technol. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)1042-1629
ISSN (online)1556-6501

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