How to format your references using the Educational Technology Research and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Technology Research and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Forrest, S. R. (2004). The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic. Nature, 428(6986), 911–918.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ionescu, A. M., & Riel, H. (2011). Tunnel field-effect transistors as energy-efficient electronic switches. Nature, 479(7373), 329–337.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nguyen, V. Q., Co, C., & Li, J. J. (2001). Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple mechanisms. Nature, 411(6841), 1068–1073.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zheng, Y., He, Z.-Z., Yang, J., & Liu, J. (2014). Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism. Scientific reports, 4, 4588.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hermans, J., & Lentz, B. (2013). Equilibria and Kinetics of Biological Macromolecules. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gliozzo, A. (2009). Semantic Domains in Computational Linguistics. (C. Strapparava, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Badouel, E., Bernardinello, L., & Darondeau, P. (2015). Variations of Elementary Net Synthesis. In L. Bernardinello & P. Darondeau (Eds.), Petri Net Synthesis (pp. 121–152). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Technology Research and Development.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 6). Protected Areas Are Helping Save Our Favourite Animals – But Let’s Not Forget The Others. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Auto Safety: NHTSA Has Options to Improve the Safety Defect Recall Process (No. GAO-11-603). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, C. A. (2014). Teacher and Student Perceptions of Bullying at Leclaire School (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, October 28). Superintendent Takes On Ailing Roosevelt. New York Times, p. 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Forrest 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Forrest 2004; Ionescu and Riel 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ionescu and Riel 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Zheng et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Technology Research and Development
AbbreviationEduc. Technol. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)1042-1629
ISSN (online)1556-6501

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