How to format your references using the IUCrJ citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IUCrJ. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kostelecký, V. A. (2014). Nature. 509, 571–572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dong, K. C. & Berger, J. M. (2007). Nature. 450, 1201–1205.
A journal article with 3 authors
Faucher-Giguère, C.-A., Lidz, A. & Hernquist, L. (2008). Science. 319, 52–55.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schwab, J. M., Chiang, N., Arita, M. & Serhan, C. N. (2007). Nature. 447, 869–874.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burton, E. (2016). Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Edge, C. S. (2010). Beginning Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server: From Solo Install to Enterprise Integration Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeng, Z., Xu, X. & Chen, D. (2015). Dendritic Cells: Biophysics, Tumor Microenvironment and Chinese Traditional Medicine, Vol. edited by X. Xu & D. Chen, pp. 25–53. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IUCrJ.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). Retired Man Solves Decades-Old Maths Problems While Brushing His Teeth IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Mass Transit: Review of the South Boston Piers Transitway Finance Plan Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas, E. M. (2016). Perceptions of educational leaders’ efficacy and leadership capacity upon preliminary administrative credential completion at California State University, Long Beach. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016). New York Times. C17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kostelecký, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kostelecký, 2014; Dong & Berger, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dong & Berger, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwab et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleIUCrJ
ISSN (online)2052-2525

Other styles