How to format your references using the IUCrJ citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IUCrJ. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sartorius, N. (2010). Nature. 468, 163–165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cook-Andersen, H. & Wilkinson, M. F. (2015). Nature. 521, 300–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Choi, C. H., Hiromura, M. & Usheva, A. (2003). Nature. 424, 965–969.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lugo, J. E., Doti, R., Sanchez, N., de la Mora, M. B., del Rio, J. A. & Faubert, J. (2014). Sci. Rep. 4, 3705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Warren, A. (2013). Dunes Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
(2015). Nordic-Iberian Cod Value Chains: Explaining salted fish trade patterns Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Faheem, M. & Senellart, P. (2015). Digital Libraries: Providing Quality Information: 17th International Conference on Asia-Pacific Digital Libraries, ICADL 2015, Seoul, Korea, December 9-12, 2015. Proceedings, Vol. edited by R.B. Allen, J. Hunter & M.L. Zeng, pp. 39–51. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IUCrJ.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015). How Many Trees Are There Left On Earth? More Than 3 Trillion, Finds Major New Study IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004). Information Technology Investment Management: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Process Maturity (Supersedes AIMD-10.1.23) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilmore, K. D. (2010). With their heads in the lion’s mouth: Exploring the novels of Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison through social contract theory. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2016). New York Times. RE17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sartorius, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Sartorius, 2010; Cook-Andersen & Wilkinson, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cook-Andersen & Wilkinson, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Lugo et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIUCrJ
ISSN (online)2052-2525

Other styles