How to format your references using the IUCrJ citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IUCrJ. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gould, J. (2014). Nature 515, S160-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bannerman, D. M. & Sprengel, R. (2007). Science 317, 50–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhuang, J., Yu, G.-R. & Nakayama, K. (2014). Sci. Rep. 4, 6720.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Toon, O. B., Robock, A., Turco, R. P., Bardeen, C., Oman, L. & Stenchikov, G. L. (2007). Science 315, 1224–1225.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ellis, H. & Lawson, A. (2013). Anatomy for Anaesthetists Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Streitz, N. & Markopoulos, P. (2015). Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions: Third International Conference, DAPI 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Medwed, M. & Schmidt, J.-M. (2009). Vol. Information Security Applications: 10th International Workshop, WISA 2009, Busan, Korea, August 25-27, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, edited by H. Y. Youm & M. Yung. pp. 51–65. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IUCrJ.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). IFLScience,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972). Achievements, Cost, and Administration of the Ocean Sediment Coring Program Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Viruet, H. B. (2006). Effect of Forklift Operation on Lower Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Approach. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. (2017). New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gould, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gould, 2014; Bannerman & Sprengel, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bannerman & Sprengel, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Toon et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleIUCrJ
ISSN (online)2052-2525

Other styles