How to format your references using the IUCrJ citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IUCrJ. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson, E. (2002). Science 296, 477–478.
A journal article with 2 authors
Merad, M. & Salmon, H. (2015). Nature 523, 294–295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins, P. G., Arnold, M. S. & Avouris, P. (2001). Science 292, 706–709.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hu, W., Li, L., Li, G., Liu, Y. & Withers, R. L. (2014). Sci. Rep. 4, 6582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duggan, D. (2012). Enterprise Software Architecture and Design Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wasum-Rainer, S., Winkelmann, I. & Tiroch, K. (2012). Arctic Science, International Law and Climate Change: Legal Aspects of Marine Science in the Arctic Ocean Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Humbert, L. & Chevrette, M. (2010). Vol. Male Reproductive Cancers: Epidemiology, Pathology and Genetics, edited by W. D. Foulkes & K. A. Cooney. pp. 143–180. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IUCrJ.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015). IFLScience,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). Social Security Administration: Technology Modernization Needs Improved Planning and Performance Measures Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munchel, B. F. (2015). Exploratory Study of Counseling Professionals’ Attitudes Toward Distance Clinical Supervision. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017). New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnson, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Johnson, 2002; Merad & Salmon, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Merad & Salmon, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIUCrJ
ISSN (online)2052-2525

Other styles