How to format your references using the Political Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Political Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Branch, D. (2003) ‘Astrophysics. When a white dwarf explodes’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5603), 53–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, R. G. W. and Jacobson, K. (2002) ‘A role for lipid shells in targeting proteins to caveolae, rafts, and other lipid domains’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5574), 1821–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
King, N., Hittinger, C. T. and Carroll, S. B. (2003) ‘Evolution of key cell signaling and adhesion protein families predates animal origins’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5631), 361–3.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Perraki, A., DeFalco, T. A., Derbyshire, P., Avila, J., Séré, D., Sklenar, J., Qi, X., et al. (2018) ‘Phosphocode-dependent functional dichotomy of a common co-receptor in plant signalling’, Nature, 561(7722), 248–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knight, H. J. (2012) Patent Strategy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
José Escalona, M., Aragón, G., Linger, H., Lang, M., Barry, C. and Schneider, C. (eds.) (2014) Information System Development: Improving Enterprise Communication. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pudenz, K. L. (2015) ‘Quantum Computing Meets the Real World’, in C. S. Calude and M. J. Dinneen (eds.), Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation: 14th International Conference, UCNC 2015, Auckland, New Zealand, August 30 -- September 3, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 66–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Political Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 6) How To Watch 3 Meteor Showers This Month [online]. IFLScienceIFLScience. Available from: [Accessed30 October 2018 ]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Federal Communications Commission: Assessment and Collection of Regulatory Fees for Fiscal Year 1999 ( No. OGC-99-54). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butts, P. (2017) Green Roof Vegetable Production in Three Different Growth Media. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003, July 20) ‘An Old Friend Returns, Herbs and Fruit In Hand’, New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Branch, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson and Jacobson, 2002; Branch, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson and Jacobson, 2002)
  • Three authors: (King, Hittinger, and Carroll, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Perraki et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitical Studies
AbbreviationPolit. Stud.
ISSN (print)0032-3217
ISSN (online)1467-9248
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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