How to format your references using the Political Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Political Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rogers, J. A. (2010) ‘Journal club. A materials scientist comments on two methods for three-dimensional nanofabrication’, Nature, 467(7311), 9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Demaurex, N. and Distelhorst, C. (2003) ‘Cell biology. Apoptosis--the calcium connection’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5616), 65–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vais, H., Foskett, J. K. and Mak, D.-O. D. (2011) ‘InsP3R channel gating altered by clustering?’, Nature, 478(7368), E1-2; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Urizar, N. L., Liverman, A. B., Dodds, D. T., Silva, F. V., Ordentlich, P., Yan, Y., Gonzalez, F. J., et al. (2002) ‘A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for FXR’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1703–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg, S. M. (2013) Accounting Best Practices. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Straube, F. (2008) Internationalisation of Logistics Systems: How Chinese and German companies enter foreign markets. (M. Bohn and S. Ma, eds.)Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ostadhassan, M. (2016) ‘Geomechanics and Elastic Anisotropy of Shale Formations’, in C. Jin and G. Cusatis (eds.), New Frontiers in Oil and Gas Exploration. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 165–207.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Political Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 23) We Talk To Neil deGrasse Tyson About Mars One, Being A Geek, And How To Get People Excited About Science [online]. IFLScienceIFLScience. Available from: [Accessed30 October 2018 ]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Information Technology: Federal Agencies Need to Address Aging Legacy Systems ( No. GAO-16-468). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales, R. A. (2010) Health care team effectiveness: The relationship between team task interdependence and group emotional competence. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Turkewitz, J. (2013, October 15) ‘A State Inquiry Is Said To Target Job Agencies’, New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rogers, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Demaurex and Distelhorst, 2003; Rogers, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Demaurex and Distelhorst, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Vais, Foskett, and Mak, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Urizar et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePolitical Studies
AbbreviationPolit. Stud.
ISSN (print)0032-3217
ISSN (online)1467-9248
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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