How to format your references using the Postharvest Biology and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Postharvest Biology and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gadagkar, R., 2011. Evolution. Altruistic wasps? Science 333, 833–834.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox, A.L., Siliciano, R.F., 2014. HIV: Not-so-innocent bystanders. Nature 505, 492–493.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, T.-R.A., Helmberger, D.V., Grand, S.P., 2004. Low-velocity zone atop the 410-km seismic discontinuity in the northwestern United States. Nature 427, 530–533.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Popeijus, H., Overmars, H., Jones, J., Blok, V., Goverse, A., Helder, J., Schots, A., Bakker, J., Smant, G., 2000. Degradation of plant cell walls by a nematode. Nature 406, 36–37.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ferrant, J.-L., Gilson, M., Jobert, S., Mayer, M., Montini, L., Ouellette, M., Rodrigues, S., Ruffini, S., 2013. Synchronous Ethernet and IEEE 1588 in Telecoms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Cao, B., Li, T.-F., Zhang, C.-Y. (Eds.), 2009. Fuzzy Information and Engineering Volume 2, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Treschev, D., Zubelevich, O., 2010. Width of the Stochastic Layer, in: Zubelevich, O. (Ed.), Introduction to the Perturbation Theory of Hamiltonian Systems, Springer Monographs in Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 93–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Postharvest Biology and Technology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. Australian Beaches Are Introducing Shark-Detecting Drones [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Telecommunication: Air Force Cost Estimates for Scope Exchange Telephone Systems (No. IMTEC-86-22FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, E.P., 2014. Curriculum development for nursing assistants: Pressure ulcer prevention module (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2016. 70 Years Ago. New York Times C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gadagkar, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cox and Siliciano, 2014; Gadagkar, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cox and Siliciano, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Popeijus et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePostharvest Biology and Technology
AbbreviationPostharvest Biol. Technol.
ISSN (print)0925-5214
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Food Science

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