How to format your references using the Frontiers of Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolan, L. (2007) Plant science. SCARECROWs at the border. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316, 377–378.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heilbron, J.L. & Bynum, W.F. (2001) 1901 and all that. Nature 409, 13–16.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rich, P.D., Liaw, H.-P. & Lee, A.K. (2014) Place cells. Large environments reveal the statistical structure governing hippocampal representations. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345, 814–817.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mitchell, J.I., Zhou, N., Nam, W., Traverso, L.M. & Xu, X. (2014) Sub-diffraction laser synthesis of silicon nanowires. Scientific reports 4, 3908.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benatar, D. (2012) The Second Sexism, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Hess, D.C. ed. (2015) Cell Therapy for Brain Injury, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Schnidman, E.A. & MacMillan, W.D. (2016) Centralization: The Rise of Technocracy. In: W.D. MacMillan (ed.) How the Fed Moves Markets: Central Bank Analysis for the Modern Era. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, pp. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Biogeography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Native Shrubs: A Simple Fix For Drought-Stricken Crops In Sub-Saharan Africa. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Human Capital: Agencies Should More Fully Evaluate the Costs and Benefits of Executive Training, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall, K.N. (2010) Facilitating physically active identity development in older women. Doctoral dissertation. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2013) Where the Artists Are the Superheroes. New York Times, 28 April:p. BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolan 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dolan 2007, Heilbron and Bynum 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heilbron and Bynum 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Mitchell et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Biogeography
ISSN (online)1948-6596

Other styles