How to format your references using the Frontiers of Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blaser, H.-U. (2006) Chemistry. A golden boost to an old reaction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313, 312–313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chan, Y.-H.M. & Marshall, W.F. (2012) How cells know the size of their organelles. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337, 1186–1189.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolfe, C.J., Okubo, P.G. & Shearer, P.M. (2003) Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300, 478–480.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chung, Y., Klimanskaya, I., Becker, S., Marh, J., Lu, S.-J., Johnson, J., Meisner, L. & Lanza, R. (2006) Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres. Nature 439, 216–219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McMaster, M.C. (2007) HPLC. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cutsuridis, V., Graham, B., Cobb, S. & Vida, I. eds. (2010) Hippocampal Microcircuits: A Computational Modeler’s Resource Book. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Krauss, W. (2015) Anthropology in the Anthropocene: Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Interdisciplinary Research. In: Grounding Global Climate Change: Contributions from the Social and Cultural Sciences. (ed. by H. Greschke and J. Tischler), pp. 59–76, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Biogeography.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016) Earliest Evidence Of Right-Handedness In Hominins Could Reveal Origins Of Human Intelligence. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial and Operating Conditions Threaten Long-Term Viability. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Plosky, W.D. (2017) An Investment Case for Addressing Social Drivers of Structural Stigma and Discrimination Against Refugees in Resource-Poor Urban Areas. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017) Van Wyck Guardrails Take a Beating From Cars and Trump. New York Times,. 7 April:. p. A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blaser 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Blaser 2006, Chan and Marshall 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chan and Marshall 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Chung et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Biogeography
ISSN (online)1948-6596

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