How to format your references using the Frontiers of Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cui, W. (2005) Astronomy. Very energetic gamma rays from microblazars. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309, 714–715.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kobayashi, T. & Hasui, K. (2014) Efficient immunization strategies to prevent financial contagion. Scientific reports 4, 3834.
A journal article with 3 authors
Powell, M.D., Vickery, P.J. & Reinhold, T.A. (2003) Reduced drag coefficient for high wind speeds in tropical cyclones. Nature 422, 279–283.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Genbacev, O.D., Prakobphol, A., Foulk, R.A., Krtolica, A.R., Ilic, D., Singer, M.S., Yang, Z.-Q., Kiessling, L.L., Rosen, S.D. & Fisher, S.J. (2003) Trophoblast L-selectin-mediated adhesion at the maternal-fetal interface. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, 405–408.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sillar, K.T., Picton, L.D. & Heitler, W.J. (2016) The Neuroethology of Predation and Escape, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tan, K.-Y. ed. (2013) Colorectal Cancer in the Elderly, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdulla, P.A., Atig, M.F. & Stenman, J. (2014) Computing Optimal Reachability Costs in Priced Dense-Timed Pushdown Automata. In: A.-H. Dediu, C. Martín-Vide, J.-L. Sierra-Rodríguez, & B. Truthe (eds.) Language and Automata Theory and Applications: 8th International Conference, LATA 2014, Madrid, Spain, March 10-14, 2014. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 62–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Biogeography.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016) First Pan-African Elephant Census Reveals Dramatic Decline Due To Poaching. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Information on Organization and Functions of the Indian Education Resources Center, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cherukuri, H. (2014) 1, 3-Dipolar Reaction of gem-Dicyanoepoxide with a Fluoro-Olefin. Doctoral dissertation. Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D. (2017) Questions and Answers About the Ruling. New York Times, 26 June:p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cui 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Cui 2005, Kobayashi and Hasui 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kobayashi and Hasui 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Genbacev et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Biogeography
ISSN (online)1948-6596

Other styles