How to format your references using the Frontiers of Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alward, W.L.M. (2003) Biomedicine. A new angle on ocular development. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, 1527–1528.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, D. & Sawers, G. (2002) Structural biology. PMF through the redox loop. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295, 1842–1843.
A journal article with 3 authors
Geisler, J.H., Colbert, M.W. & Carew, J.L. (2014) A new fossil species supports an early origin for toothed whale echolocation. Nature 508, 383–386.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jonietz, F., Mühlbauer, S., Pfleiderer, C., et al. (2010) Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330, 1648–1651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Larsen, E. & Aarts, R.M. (2005) Audio Bandwidth Extension, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nolte, G. ed. (2009) Peace through International Law: The Role of the International Law Commission. A Colloquium at the Occasion of its Sixtieth Anniversary, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gülan, U., Lüthi, B., Holzner, M., Liberzon, A., Tsinober, A. & Kinzelbach, W. (2014) An In Vitro Analysis of the Influence of the Arterial Stiffness on the Aortic Flow Using Three-Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry. In: L.M. Roa Romero (ed.) XIII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2013: MEDICON 2013, 25-28 September 2013, Seville, Spain. IFMBE Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 23–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Biogeography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Shell’s Abandoned Well And The Myth Of The Arctic Oil Land Grab. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Acquisition Workforce: DOT Lacks Data, Oversight, and Strategic Focus Needed to Address Significant Workforce Challenges, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oldham, C.A. (2010) An investigation of genre and grammatical positioning in an online community. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2008) Growing More Diverse. New York Times, 28 September:p. NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alward 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Alward 2003, Richardson and Sawers 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richardson and Sawers 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Jonietz et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Biogeography
ISSN (online)1948-6596

Other styles