How to format your references using the Frontiers of Biogeography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Biogeography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nicholls, H. (2009) Darwin 200: A flight of fancy. Nature 457, 790–791.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cummings, C.A. & Relman, D.A. (2002) Genomics and microbiology. Microbial forensics--"cross-examining pathogens". Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, 1976–1979.
A journal article with 3 authors
Korswagen, H.C., Herman, M.A. & Clevers, H.C. (2000) Distinct beta-catenins mediate adhesion and signalling functions in C. elegans. Nature 406, 527–532.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Woodhead, J.L., Zhao, F.-Q., Craig, R., Egelman, E.H., Alamo, L. & Padrón, R. (2005) Atomic model of a myosin filament in the relaxed state. Nature 436, 1195–1199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maksoud, M.A. (2017) Quick Reference to Dental Implant Surgery. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Oppen, M.J.H. van & Lough, J.M. eds. (2009) Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zheltikov, A., LʼHuillier, A. & Krausz, F. (2012) Nonlinear Optics. In: Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics. (ed. by F. Träger), pp. 161–251, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Biogeography.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016) Astronomers Have Spotted The Most Distant Oxygen In The Universe. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Air Traffic Control: FAA’s Modernization Efforts--Past, Present, and Future. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sachdev, N.A. (2012) An Evaluation of the District of Columbia Summer Youth Employment Program. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. (2017) Ordinary People. New York Times,. 27 January:. p. MB8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nicholls 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Cummings and Relman 2002, Nicholls 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cummings and Relman 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Woodhead et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Biogeography
ISSN (online)1948-6596

Other styles