How to format your references using the Der Zoologische Garten citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Der Zoologische Garten. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norman, M. R. (2009). Physics. Chasing arcs in cuprate superconductors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5944), 1080–1081.
A journal article with 2 authors
Istvan, E. S., & Deisenhofer, J. (2001). Structural mechanism for statin inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5519), 1160–1164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feng, Y., Zhang, S., & Huang, X. (2014). A robust TALENs system for highly efficient mammalian genome editing. Scientific Reports, 4, 3632.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nowak, M. A., Sasaki, A., Taylor, C., & Fudenberg, D. (2004). Emergence of cooperation and evolutionary stability in finite populations. Nature, 428(6983), 646–650.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Datta, T. K. (2010). Seismic Analysis of Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ramanna, S., Jain, L. C., & Howlett, R. J. (Eds.). (2013). Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning (Vol. 13). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Clark, E., & Pompa, J. L. (2009). Women and Traumatic Brain Injury. In E. Fletcher-Janzen (Ed.), The Neuropsychology of Women (pp. 1–18). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Der Zoologische Garten.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 22). Dead Star Demolishes Planet – Offering A Glimpse Into How The Earth Could End Its Days. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Privatization of Federal Aviation Administration Functions (T-RCED-88-11). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sulaiman, Y. (2008). The Banteng and the Eagle: Indonesian Foreign Policy and the United States During the Era of Sukarno 1945-1967 [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis, A. (2014, July 16). At Hospital, Its Ex-C.E.O. Finds Lucrative Work. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Norman, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Istvan & Deisenhofer, 2001; Norman, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Istvan & Deisenhofer, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Feng et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nowak et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleDer Zoologische Garten
AbbreviationZool. Gart.
ISSN (print)0044-5169
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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