How to format your references using the Der Zoologische Garten citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Der Zoologische Garten. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ciesla, F. J. (2008). Planetary science. Observing our origins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1488–1489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mohd-Sarip, A., & Verrijzer, C. P. (2004). Molecular biology. A higher order of silence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5701), 1484–1485.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, J., Kimble, H. J., & Katori, H. (2008). Quantum state engineering and precision metrology using state-insensitive light traps. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5884), 1734–1738.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tang, Y., Shi, J., Li, S., Wang, L., Cayre, Y. E., & Chen, Y. (2014). Microfluidic device with integrated microfilter of conical-shaped holes for high efficiency and high purity capture of circulating tumor cells. Scientific Reports, 4, 6052.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tjong, S. C. (2012). Polymer Composites with Carbonaceous Nanofillers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Bernstein, D. J., Buchmann, J., & Dahmen, E. (Eds.). (2009). Post-Quantum Cryptography. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghafari, N., Gurfinkel, A., & Trefler, R. (2009). Verification of Parameterized Systems with Combinations of Abstract Domains. In D. Lee, A. Lopes, & A. Poetzsch-Heffter (Eds.), Formal Techniques for Distributed Systems: Joint 11th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference FMOODS 2009 and 29th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference FORTE 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, June 9-12, 2009. Proceedings (pp. 57–72). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Der Zoologische Garten.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, March 29). There Is No Word For This Color In English – But There Is Now In Japanese. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). [Comments on FAA Reimbursement of Employees’ Ferry Fares] (B-247849.3). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ouellette, R. L. (2008). Referral development results of relationship tie- strength for small business goal -directed networking groups [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, B. Y. M. A. (2003, March 13). For French, Apprehension About Travel to U.S. New York Times, W1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ciesla, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Ciesla, 2008; Mohd-Sarip & Verrijzer, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mohd-Sarip & Verrijzer, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Ye et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDer Zoologische Garten
AbbreviationZool. Gart.
ISSN (print)0044-5169
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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