How to format your references using the Der Zoologische Garten citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Der Zoologische Garten. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carlson, R. W. (2002). Geology. Osmium remembers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5567), 475–477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2006). Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5765), 1301–1303.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, Z., Gandhi, C. S., & Rees, D. C. (2009). Structure of a tetrameric MscL in an expanded intermediate state. Nature, 461(7260), 120–124.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sakai, A., Kanno, T., Takahashi, K., Tamaki, H., Kusada, H., Yamada, Y., & Abe, H. (2014). Breaking the trade-off between thermal and electrical conductivities in the thermoelectric material of an artificially tilted multilayer. Scientific Reports, 4, 6089.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jayaweera, S. K. (2014). Signal Processing for Cognitive Radios. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
García-Alcaraz, J. L., Maldonado-Macías, A. A., & Cortes-Robles, G. (Eds.). (2014). Lean Manufacturing in the Developing World: Methodology, Case Studies and Trends from Latin America. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lei, L., Lin, C., & Zhong, Z. (2015). Performance Analysis of Device-to-Device Communications with Dynamic Interference Using SPNs. In C. Lin & Z. Zhong (Eds.), Stochastic Petri Nets for Wireless Networks (pp. 41–78). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Der Zoologische Garten.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2015, November 12). Astronomers Have Discovered The Oldest Stars In Our Galaxy. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Social Security Administration: Cases of Federal Employees and Transportation Drivers and Owners Who Fraudulently and/or Improperly Received SSA Benefits (No. GAO-10-949T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao, Y. (2006). Morphological and Functional Characterization of the Neurotransmitter GABA in Adult Rat Taste Buds (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2008, November 22). Boris Fyodorov, 50, Dies; Guided Reforms in Russia. New York Times, p. B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carlson, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Carlson, 2002; Warneken & Tomasello, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Warneken & Tomasello, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Liu, Gandhi, & Rees, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sakai et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDer Zoologische Garten
AbbreviationZool. Gart.
ISSN (print)0044-5169
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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