How to format your references using the Der Zoologische Garten citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Der Zoologische Garten. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herring, R. A. (2011). Physics. A new twist for electron beams. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6014), 155–156.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scheuring, S., & Sturgis, J. N. (2005). Chromatic adaptation of photosynthetic membranes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5733), 484–487.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krumholz, M. R., McKee, C. F., & Klein, R. I. (2005). The formation of stars by gravitational collapse rather than competitive accretion. Nature, 438(7066), 332–334.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pushkarsky, I., Liu, Y., Lyb, Y., Weaver, W., Su, T.-W., Mudanyali, O., Ozcan, A., & Di Carlo, D. (2014). Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy. Scientific Reports, 4, 4717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernström, S. (2014). Valuation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Guttry, A. de, Gestri, M., & Venturini, G. (Eds.). (2012). International Disaster Response Law. T. M. C. Asser Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Hongfang, L., & Hao, Z. (2012). Study of Online Test and Fault Diagnosis Technology Based on ATmega128. In Y. Zhang (Ed.), Future Communication, Computing, Control and Management: Volume 2 (pp. 29–35). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Der Zoologische Garten.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, December 12). New Evidence Claims To Support Alternative Theory Of Gravity. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Information Technology: HUD Can Take Additional Actions to Improve Its Governance (GAO-15-56). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galvarin, M. (2008). Special education paraeducators as instructional support [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, May 24). Stewart And HBO Pull the Plug On a Project. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Herring, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Herring, 2011; Scheuring & Sturgis, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scheuring & Sturgis, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Krumholz et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pushkarsky et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDer Zoologische Garten
AbbreviationZool. Gart.
ISSN (print)0044-5169
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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