How to format your references using the Der Zoologische Garten citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Der Zoologische Garten. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grubb, M. (2012). Emissions trading: Cap and trade finds new energy. Nature, 491(7426), 666–667.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maceyka, M., & Spiegel, S. (2014). Sphingolipid metabolites in inflammatory disease. Nature, 510(7503), 58–67.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sigman, D. M., Hain, M. P., & Haug, G. H. (2010). The polar ocean and glacial cycles in atmospheric CO(2) concentration. Nature, 466(7302), 47–55.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Moskun, A. C., Jailaubekov, A. E., Bradforth, S. E., Tao, G., & Stratt, R. M. (2006). Rotational coherence and a sudden breakdown in linear response seen in room-temperature liquids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5769), 1907–1911.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kamso, N., & Ng, T. M. (2013). Investing in Islamic Funds. John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Bobenko, A. I., Sullivan, J. M., Schröder, P., & Ziegler, G. M. (Eds.). (2008). Discrete Differential Geometry (Vol. 38). Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Hemmeter, U.-M. (2013). Treatment of Burnout: Overlap of Diagnosis. In S. Bährer-Kohler (Ed.), Burnout for Experts: Prevention in the Context of Living and Working (pp. 73–87). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Der Zoologische Garten.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 10). Good Luck G7 Leaders – We Won’t Be Off Fossil Fuels By 2100. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). School Facilities: America’s Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century (HEHS-95-95). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darko-Mensah, K. (2019). Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure the Online Outsourcing Efficiency of Sub-Saharan African Countries [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, June 29). ‘Mixed Results’ for U.S.; Uncertain Future for Coach. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grubb, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Grubb, 2012; Maceyka & Spiegel, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maceyka & Spiegel, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Sigman et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Moskun et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleDer Zoologische Garten
AbbreviationZool. Gart.
ISSN (print)0044-5169
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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