How to format your references using the Frontiers in ICT citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in ICT. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berjak, P. (2005). Global voices of science. Protector of the seeds: seminal reflections from southern Africa. Science 307, 47–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saks, M. J., and Koehler, J. J. (2005). The coming paradigm shift in forensic identification science. Science 309, 892–895.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sword, G. A., Lorch, P. D., and Gwynne, D. T. (2005). Insect behaviour: migratory bands give crickets protection. Nature 433, 703.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wing, K., Onishi, Y., Prieto-Martin, P., Yamaguchi, T., Miyara, M., Fehervari, Z., et al. (2008). CTLA-4 control over Foxp3+ regulatory T cell function. Science 322, 271–275.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sanchez, A., and Carro, B. (2017). Digital Services in the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ferraz Dias de Moraes, M. A. (2014). Production of Ethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil: From State Intervention to a Free Market. , ed. D. Zilberman Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lambrinos, L., and Georgatos, F. (2008). “A Case for Multimedia Streaming over the Grid Infrastructure,” in Management of Converged Multimedia Networks and Services: 11th IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Management of Multimedia and Mobile Networks and Services, MMNS 2008, Samos Island, Greece, September 22-26, 2008. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. G. Pavlou, T. Ahmed, and T. Dagiuklas (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 33–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in ICT.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Researchers Are Developing GM Pigs For Animal-To-Human Organ Transplant. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). U.S.-Korea Fighter Coproduction Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sakalli Gumus, S. (2008). Preparing teachers for partnering with families: Examining the impact of a specifically designed curriculum on professionals.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016). Valentines, Vengeful and Comic, Through an Antique Lens. New York Times, C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Berjak, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Berjak, 2005; Saks and Koehler, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Saks and Koehler, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Wing et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in ICT
AbbreviationFront. ICT
ISSN (online)2297-198X

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