How to format your references using the Frontiers in ICT citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in ICT. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buriak, J. M. (2004). Chemistry. Chemistry with nanoscale perfection. Science 304, 692–693.
A journal article with 2 authors
White, R. J., and Averner, M. (2001). Humans in space. Nature 409, 1115–1118.
A journal article with 3 authors
Muchnik, L., Aral, S., and Taylor, S. J. (2013). Social influence bias: a randomized experiment. Science 341, 647–651.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wardle, D. A., Hörnberg, G., Zackrisson, O., Kalela-Brundin, M., and Coomes, D. A. (2003). Long-term effects of wildfire on ecosystem properties across an island area gradient. Science 300, 972–975.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
He, J., Zeng, R., and Zhang, B. (2012). Methodology and Technology for Power System Grounding. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Coticchio, G., Albertini, D. F., and De Santis, L. eds. (2013). Oogenesis. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Engelson, L., and Lindberg, P. O. (2006). “Congestion Pricing of Road Networks with Users Having Different Time Values,” in Mathematical and Computational Models for Congestion Charging Applied Optimization., eds. S. Lawphongpanich, D. W. Hearn, and M. J. Smith (Boston, MA: Springer US), 81–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in ICT.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Math And Reading Abilities Driven By Same Genes. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Progress Has Been Made, but Improvements Are Needed to Effectively Manage Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fischer, D. (2012). Psychology and people living with hiv/aids: A critical review of the literature.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010). At Stadium, But Far From Roar Of Crowd. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buriak, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Buriak, 2004; White and Averner, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (White and Averner, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Wardle et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in ICT
AbbreviationFront. ICT
ISSN (online)2297-198X

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