How to format your references using the Frontiers in ICT citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in ICT. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pagel, M. (2008). Rise of the digital machine. Nature 452, 699.
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman, J. R., and Nunnari, J. (2014). Mitochondrial form and function. Nature 505, 335–343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kayser, M. S., Yue, Z., and Sehgal, A. (2014). A critical period of sleep for development of courtship circuitry and behavior in Drosophila. Science 344, 269–274.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Koh, W.-K., Koposov, A. Y., Stewart, J. T., Pal, B. N., Robel, I., Pietryga, J. M., et al. (2013). Heavily doped n-type PbSe and PbS nanocrystals using ground-state charge transfer from cobaltocene. Sci. Rep. 3, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maillard, P. (2013). Competitive Quality Strategies. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cormode, G., and Thottan, M. eds. (2010). Algorithms for Next Generation Networks. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chou, C.-P. (2013). “A Chinese Declaration of the Rights of Women,” in English Writings of Hu Shih: Literature and Society (Volume 1) China Academic Library., ed. C.-P. Chou (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 25–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in ICT.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). World’s Most Powerful Laser Is 2,000 Trillion Watts – But What’s It For? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Congressional Relations Activities, 1950-1983: Smith Blair, Charles E. Eckert, Martin J. Fitzgerald, and L. Fred Thompson. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Latronica, A. N. (2016). The effect of emotion regulation on stress and the role of executive function.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. (2012). A Vote for Small. New York Times, ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pagel, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Pagel, 2008; Friedman and Nunnari, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Friedman and Nunnari, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Koh et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in ICT
AbbreviationFront. ICT
ISSN (online)2297-198X

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