How to format your references using the Frontiers in ICT citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in ICT. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lincoln, T. (2000). Cardiac arrest can be less of a gamble. Nature 408, 302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schramke, V., and Allshire, R. (2003). Hairpin RNAs and retrotransposon LTRs effect RNAi and chromatin-based gene silencing. Science 301, 1069–1074.
A journal article with 3 authors
McGaha, T. L., Sorrentino, B., and Ravetch, J. V. (2005). Restoration of tolerance in lupus by targeted inhibitory receptor expression. Science 307, 590–593.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bernard, A., Lécuyer, C., Vincent, P., Amiot, R., Bardet, N., Buffetaut, E., et al. (2010). Regulation of body temperature by some Mesozoic marine reptiles. Science 328, 1379–1382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chernick, M. R. (2011). The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses, and Clinicians. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
George, A. M. ed. (2016). ABC Transporters - 40 Years on. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bunjes, H., and Müller-Goymann, C. C. (2016). “Microsystems for Emulsification,” in Microsystems for Pharmatechnology: Manipulation of Fluids, Particles, Droplets, and Cells, ed. A. Dietzel (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 153–179.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in ICT.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Biologists Say They Found The First Great White Shark Nursery In Long Island. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Railroad Regulation: Current Issues Associated With the Rate Relief Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberson, B. N. (2013). Motivation towards learning perceived in Socratic seminar versus traditional lecture.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1997). Whose Hat? New York Times, 93.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lincoln, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lincoln, 2000; Schramke and Allshire, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schramke and Allshire, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Bernard et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in ICT
AbbreviationFront. ICT
ISSN (online)2297-198X

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