How to format your references using the Frontiers in ICT citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in ICT. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lucht, R. P. (2007). Chemistry. Femtosecond lasers for molecular measurements. Science 316, 207–208.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burt, D., and Pourquie, O. (2003). Genetics. Chicken genome--science nuggets to come soon. Science 300, 1669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., and Ha, Y. (2006). Crystal structure of a rhomboid family intramembrane protease. Nature 444, 179–180.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Song, S. J., Seok, J. Y., Yoon, J. H., Kim, K. M., Kim, G. H., Lee, M. H., et al. (2013). Real-time identification of the evolution of conducting nano-filaments in TiO2 thin film ReRAM. Sci. Rep. 3, 3443.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thiselton, A. C. (2010). 1 & 2 Thessalonians: Through the Centuries. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Cabestany, J., Rojas, I., and Joya, G. eds. (2011). Advances in Computational Intelligence: 11th International Work-Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, IWANN 2011, Torremolinos-Málaga, Spain, June 8-10, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schuecker, C., and Pettermann, H. E. (2008). “Combining Elastic Brittle Damage with Plasticity to Model the Non-linear behavior of Fiber Reinforced Laminates,” in Mechanical Response of Composites Computational Methods in Applied Sciences., eds. C. G. Dávila, S. T. Pinho, and J. J. C. Remmers (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 99–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in ICT.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). Oxygen Levels In The Ocean Have Dropped Due To Climate Change. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Highway Infrastructure: Federal Efforts to Strengthen Security Should Be Better Coordinated and Targeted on the Nation’s Most Critical Highway Infrastructure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Skiold-Hanlin, S. (2015). Functional and Ecological Aspects of the Mucus Trails of the Freshwater Gastropod Elimia potosiensis.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. (2005). With Emphasis on Safety, Playgrounds Aren’t for All. New York Times, 14LI1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lucht, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Burt and Pourquie, 2003; Lucht, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burt and Pourquie, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Song et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in ICT
AbbreviationFront. ICT
ISSN (online)2297-198X

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