How to format your references using the Frontiers in Veterinary Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Veterinary Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt B. Perspective: if not funding then teaching. Nature (2014) 511:S81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zid BM, O’Shea EK. Promoter sequences direct cytoplasmic localization and translation of mRNAs during starvation in yeast. Nature (2014) 514:117–121.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pielke R Jr, Wigley T, Green C. Dangerous assumptions. Nature (2008) 452:531–532.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen H, Chandrasekar S, Sheetz MP, Stossel TP, Nakamura F, Yan J. Mechanical perturbation of filamin A immunoglobulin repeats 20-21 reveals potential non-equilibrium mechanochemical partner binding function. Sci Rep (2013) 3:1642.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sage AP, Rouse WB. Economic Systems Analysis and Assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2011).
An edited book
Saharan V. Chitosan Based Nanomaterials in Plant Growth and Protection. , ed. A. Pal New Delhi: Springer India (2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Cangussu JW, Cooper KC, Wong EW. “Multi Criteria Selection of Components Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process,” in Component-Based Software Engineering: 9th International Symposium, CBSE 2006, Västerås, Sweden, June 29 - July 1, 2006. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. I. Gorton, G. T. Heineman, I. Crnković, H. W. Schmidt, J. A. Stafford, C. Szyperski, K. Wallnau (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 67–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Veterinary Science.

Blog post
Carpineti A. This “Frankenstein” Galaxy Is Made Up Of Bits Of Other Galaxies. IFLScience (2016) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Better Guidance Would Improve ADP Evaluations in Support of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act of 1982]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1984).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winton TW. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Standards-based Grading and Student Performance. (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Austen B. Violence and Division on Chicago’s South Side. New York Times (2016)SR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Veterinary Science
AbbreviationFront. Vet. Sci.
ISSN (online)2297-1769

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