How to format your references using the Frontiers in Veterinary Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Veterinary Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Webb B. Robots in invertebrate neuroscience. Nature (2002) 417:359–363.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fredrick K, Noller HF. Catalysis of ribosomal translocation by sparsomycin. Science (2003) 300:1159–1162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilman RT, Nuismer SL, Jhwueng D-C. Coevolution in multidimensional trait space favours escape from parasites and pathogens. Nature (2012) 483:328–330.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Park JY, Ogletree DF, Salmeron M, Ribeiro RA, Canfield PC, Jenks CJ, Thiel PA. High frictional anisotropy of periodic and aperiodic directions on a quasicrystal surface. Science (2005) 309:1354–1356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levy G, Levin B. The Biostatistics of Aging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc (2014).
An edited book
Fraillon J. Preparing for Life in a Digital Age: The IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study International Report. , eds. J. Ainley, W. Schulz, T. Friedman, E. Gebhardt Cham: Springer International Publishing (2014).
A chapter in an edited book
Yu G, Liu Z, Yuan J. “Discriminative Orderlet Mining for Real-Time Recognition of Human-Object Interaction,” in Computer Vision -- ACCV 2014: 12th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Singapore, Singapore, November 1-5, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part V Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. D. Cremers, I. Reid, H. Saito, M.-H. Yang (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 50–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Veterinary Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. ‘White Whale’: Wild Orca Is One Of Only Four Of Its Kind Ever Seen. IFLScience (2014) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Many Management Successes at WMATA, but Capital Planning Could Be Enhanced. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2001).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McDuffie CA. Melodies of intervention: Music therapy for transitional-age youth: A grant proposal. (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S. Nothing Lasts Forever. New York Times (2000)146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Veterinary Science
AbbreviationFront. Vet. Sci.
ISSN (online)2297-1769

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