How to format your references using the Frontiers in Veterinary Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Veterinary Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Konner M. The ties that bind. Nature (2004) 429:705.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee S-J, Masliah E. Neurodegeneration: Aggregates feel the strain. Nature (2015) 522:296–297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verschure PFMJ, Voegtlin T, Douglas RJ. Environmentally mediated synergy between perception and behaviour in mobile robots. Nature (2003) 425:620–624.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Noggle S, Fung H-L, Gore A, Martinez H, Satriani KC, Prosser R, Oum K, Paull D, Druckenmiller S, Freeby M, et al. Human oocytes reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state. Nature (2011) 478:70–75.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Swatton PJ. Principles of Flight for Pilots. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (2010).
An edited book
Sadeghi A-R ed. Financial Cryptography and Data Security: 17th International Conference, FC 2013, Okinawa, Japan, April 1-5, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2013). XVI, 406 p. 70 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Schinianakis D, Stouraitis T. “Residue Number Systems in Cryptography: Design, Challenges, Robustness.,” In: Chang C-H, Potkonjak M, editors. Secure System Design and Trustable Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing (2016). p. 115–161

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Veterinary Science.

Blog post
Fang J. Russian Man Will Become Subject Of First Human Head Transplant Ever Performed. IFLScience (2015) [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. John P. Abbadessa, 1947-1962. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1990).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chahine J. Social workers’ perceptions of individuals who use drugs and alcohol problematically. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Say Law Bars Retaliation Over Bias Claims. New York Times (2008)A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Veterinary Science
AbbreviationFront. Vet. Sci.
ISSN (online)2297-1769

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