How to format your references using the Intervirology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intervirology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCabe H. Galileo set for suicide flight. Nature. 2000 Jul;406(6791):8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Canfield DE, Kump LR. Geochemistry. Carbon cycle makeover. Science. 2013 Feb;339(6119):533–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalas P, Liu MC, Matthews BC. Discovery of a large dust disk around the nearby star AU Microscopii. Science. 2004 Mar;303(5666):1990–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lorenz RD, Stiles BW, Kirk RL, Allison MD, Del Marmo PP, Iess L, et al. Titan’s rotation reveals an internal ocean and changing zonal winds. Science. 2008 Mar;319(5870):1649–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stenning A, Smith A, Rochovská A, Świa̧tek D. Domesticating Neo-Liberalism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Gao GR, Qian D, Gao X, Chapman B, Chen W, editors. Network and Parallel Computing: 13th IFIP WG 10.3 International Conference, NPC 2016, Xi’an, China, October 28-29, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Han W, Di L, Zhao P, Wei Y, Li X. Design and Implementation of GeoBrain Online Analysis System (GeOnAS). In: Bertolotto M, Ray C, Li X, editors. Web and Wireless Geographical Information Systems: 8th International Symposium, W2GIS 2008, Shanghai, China, December 11-12, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008; pp 27–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intervirology.

Blog post
Andrew D. Black Bears Mistaken For Puppies For TWO YEARS By Chinese Man [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Jul [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Traffic Safety: Improved Reporting and Performance Measures Would Enhance Evaluation of High-Visibility Campaigns. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson AF. Anxiety in the process of individuation. An in-depth psychological study. 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM. Firing Puts Public Split Over Media On Display. New York Times. 2017 May;A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntervirology
ISSN (print)0300-5526
ISSN (online)1423-0100
Infectious Diseases

Other styles