How to format your references using the Intervirology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intervirology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miyamoto K: Structural model of ubiquitin transfer onto an artificial RING finger as an E3 ligase. Sci Rep 2014;4:6574.
A journal article with 2 authors
Newman DK, Banfield JF: Geomicrobiology: how molecular-scale interactions underpin biogeochemical systems. Science 2002;296:1071–1077.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghosh D, Segal A, Voets T: Distinct modes of perimembrane TRP channel turnover revealed by TIR-FRAP. Sci Rep 2014;4:7111.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Petreanu L, Mao T, Sternson SM, Svoboda K: The subcellular organization of neocortical excitatory connections. Nature 2009;457:1142–1145.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kissell J: Mac® Security Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2009.
An edited book
Dréo J: Metaheuristics for Hard Optimization: Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search, Evolutionary and Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colonies,… Methods and Case Studies. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Lesniewski P, Bartoszewicz A: LQ Optimal Control of Periodic Review Perishable Inventories with Transportation Losses; in Swiątek J, Grzech A, Swiątek P, Tomczak JM (eds): Advances in Systems Science: Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems Science 2013 (ICSS 2013). Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intervirology.

Blog post
Davis J: Stem Cell Treatment Used To Cure Age-Related Blindness. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Review of a Computer Hardware Acquisition for NOAA in Boulder, Colorado. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mathes MD: Exploring Factors That Enabled Financial Advisors and Their Firms to Improve Professional Performance After 2008 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly AL: For Employed Moms, the Pinnacle Of Stress Comes After Work Ends. New York Times 1999;1518.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIntervirology
ISSN (print)0300-5526
ISSN (online)1423-0100
Infectious Diseases

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