How to format your references using the Current Epidemiology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Epidemiology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Muller NZ. Economics. Boosting GDP growth by accounting for the environment. Science. 2014;345:873–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ives AR, Carpenter SR. Stability and diversity of ecosystems. Science. 2007;317:58–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. De Pontieu B, Title A, Carlsson M. Eyeing the Sun. Probing the solar interface region. Introduction. Science. 2014;346:315.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Liang Y, Liu P, Xiao J, Li H, Wang C, Yang G. A microfibre assembly of an iron-carbon composite with giant magnetisation. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3051.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Carrega P. Geographical Information and Climatology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2010.
An edited book
1. Li F, Shim K, Zheng K, Liu G, editors. Web Technologies and Applications: 18th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2016, Suzhou, China, September 23-25, 2016. Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kaushik A. India, OPEC, and an Agenda for Energy Security. In: Mathur S, editor. Trade, the WTO and Energy Security: Mapping the Linkages for India. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014. p. 147–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Epidemiology Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Greener But Not Cleaner? How Trees Can Worsen Urban Air Pollution [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Charter Schools: Federal Funding Available but Barriers Exist. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Apr. Report No.: HEHS-98-84.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Boylan SA. An exploratory case study: U. S. Army’s leadership development for organizational leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. Hedge Fund Sues to Have Puerto Rico’s Bankruptcy Case Thrown Out. New York Times. 2017 Aug 7;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Epidemiology Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Epidemiol. Rep.
ISSN (online)2196-2995

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