How to format your references using the Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pagel, M. (2012). Evolution: Adapted to culture. Nature 482, 297–299.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berke, J. D., and Eichenbaum, H. B. (2001). Drug addiction and the hippocampus. Science 294, 1235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blum, R., Kafitz, K. W., and Konnerth, A. (2002). Neurotrophin-evoked depolarization requires the sodium channel Na(V)1.9. Nature 419, 687–693.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Purnell, M. A., Bell, M. A., Baines, D. C., Hart, P. J. B., and Travis, M. P. (2007). Correlated evolution and dietary change in fossil stickleback. Science 317, 1887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tripathi, N., Singh, R. S., and Hills, C. D. (2016). Reclamation of Mine-Impacted Land for Ecosystem Recovery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Janowski, T., and Mohanty, H. eds. (2010). Distributed Computing and Internet Technology: 6th International Conference, ICDCIT 2010, Bhubaneswar, India, February 15-17, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bauer, F., and Groß, H. (2009). “Exploring Terra Incognita – Operating Hours in the Service Sector,” in Comparative Analyses of Operating Hours and Working Times in the European Union Contributions to Economics., eds. M. Smith, G. Cette, F. Bauer, and L. Delsen (Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD), 83–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). New Potential Driver Of Alzheimer’s Discovered. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998). Intercity Passenger Rail: Financial Performance of Amtrak’s Routes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katsky, C. S. (2015). Open Secrets: Congressional Oversight of the CIA in the Early Cold War.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M. M. (2013). Michigan: Another Hearing On the Detroit Bankruptcy. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pagel, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Berke and Eichenbaum, 2001; Pagel, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berke and Eichenbaum, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Purnell et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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