How to format your references using the Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stirling, C. H. (2012). Geochemistry. Keeping time with Earth’s heaviest element. Science 335, 1585–1586.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jensen, L. J., and Bork, P. (2008). Biochemistry. Not comparable, but complementary. Science 322, 56–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao, Y., Jiang, J., and Huang, H. (2014). Chemical dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene with polyethylene glycol and hydroxide: dominant effect of temperature and ionic potential. Sci. Rep. 4, 6305.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee, J., Trugman, S. A., Batista, C. D., Zhang, C. L., Talbayev, D., Xu, X. S., et al. (2013). Probing the interplay between quantum charge fluctuations and magnetic ordering in LuFe2O4. Sci. Rep. 3, 2654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rieth, M. (2012). Pharmazeutische Mikrobiologie. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Rotondi, A. (2012). Probabilità, Statistica e Simulazione: Programmi applicativi scritti con Scilab. 3a edizione. , eds. P. Pedroni and A. Pievatolo Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hajek, A. E., and Tobin, P. C. (2009). “North American Eradications of Asian and European Gypsy Moth,” in Use of Microbes for Control and Eradication of Invasive Arthropods, eds. A. E. Hajek, T. R. Glare, and M. O’Callaghan (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Earthquake Scientists Have Lost Their Favorite Curb In San Francisco. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). National Assessment Technical Quality. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hylton, J. K. (2016). Scatter; Or, A Series or Minor Inconveniences.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J., and Fandos, N. (2017). Broadcaster Sets a Collision Course With Fox. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stirling, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Jensen and Bork, 2008; Stirling, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jensen and Bork, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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