How to format your references using the Optical and Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical and Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leonard, K.E.: Perspective: Beyond the neural circuits. Nature. 522, S56 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Deckert, R., Dameris, M.: Atmospheric science. From ocean to stratosphere. Science. 322, 53–55 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Monteggia, L.M., Malenka, R.C., Deisseroth, K.: Depression: the best way forward. Nature. 515, 200–201 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
El Gabaly, F., Ling, W.L.W., McCarty, K.F., de la Figuera, J.: The importance of threading dislocations on the motion of domain boundaries in thin films. Science. 308, 1303–1305 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Subramanian, M.N.: Plastics Additives and Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013)
An edited book
Gavrilova, M.L., Tan, C.J.K., Moreno, E.D. eds: Transactions on Computational Science XI: Special Issue on Security in Computing, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Khattab, A., Perkins, D., Bayoumi, M.: Rate-Adaptive Probabilistic Approach for Opportunistic Spectrum Access. In: Perkins, D. and Bayoumi, M. (eds.) Cognitive Radio Networks: From Theory to Practice. pp. 41–47. Springer, New York, NY (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical and Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Evidence Found For The Higgs Boson Direct Decay Into Fermions


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Financial Audit: District of Columbia Highway Trust Fund’s 1996 Financial Statements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1997)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrin, J.L.: Sitting in the Fire: An Exploration of Soul-Making in Prison, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mann, M.: The Other Side of Boredom, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leonard 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Deckert and Dameris 2008; Leonard 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deckert and Dameris 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (El Gabaly et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical and Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationOpt. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0306-8919
ISSN (online)1572-817X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles