How to format your references using the Optical and Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical and Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herzberg, C.: Geochemistry. Food for a volcanic diet. Science. 316, 378–379 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruokolainen, K., Tuomisto, H.: Beta-diversity in tropical forests. Science. 297, 1439; discussion 1439 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Zeng, G.-M., Wu, L.-A., Xing, H.-J.: Symmetry restoration and quantumness reestablishment. Sci. Rep. 4, 6377 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jenner, L., Romby, P., Rees, B., Schulze-Briese, C., Springer, M., Ehresmann, C., Ehresmann, B., Moras, D., Yusupova, G., Yusupov, M.: Translational operator of mRNA on the ribosome: how repressor proteins exclude ribosome binding. Science. 308, 120–123 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deichmann, U.: Flüchten, Mitmachen, Vergessen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG (2005)
An edited book
Knopov, P.S.: Estimation and Control Problems for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations. Springer, New York, NY (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Buzzard, K.: Computing Weight One Modular Forms over $\mathbb{C} and \overline{\mathbb{F}}_{p}$. In: Böckle, G. and Wiese, G. (eds.) Computations with Modular Forms: Proceedings of a Summer School and Conference, Heidelberg, August/September 2011. pp. 129–146. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical and Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Thanks To Cosmic Rays, We Finally Know What The Inside Of A Pyramid Looks Like,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Evaluation of the Office of Economic Opportunity’s Performance Contracting Experiment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1973)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Snyder, Q.Z.: From anarchy to confederacy: A theory of international politics, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: Namath Has His Own Memories of ’65, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Herzberg 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Herzberg 2007; Ruokolainen and Tuomisto 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ruokolainen and Tuomisto 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Jenner et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical and Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationOpt. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0306-8919
ISSN (online)1572-817X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles