How to format your references using the Optical and Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical and Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowman, D.: Conservation: Bring elephants to Australia? Nature. 482, 30 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramesh, K.V., Goswami, P.: Assessing reliability of regional climate projections: the case of Indian monsoon. Sci. Rep. 4, 4071 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Widom, C.S., Czaja, S.J., DuMont, K.A.: Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: real or detection bias? Science. 347, 1480–1485 (2015)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Soares-Filho, B.S., Nepstad, D.C., Curran, L.M., Cerqueira, G.C., Garcia, R.A., Ramos, C.A., Voll, E., McDonald, A., Lefebvre, P., Schlesinger, P.: Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature. 440, 520–523 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner, H., Belack, C.: Managing Complex Projects. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
Kües, U., Fischer, R. eds: Growth, Differentiation and Sexuality. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Atkinson, K., Han, W.: Numerical Quadrature. In: Han, W. (ed.) Spherical Harmonics and Approximations on the Unit Sphere: An Introduction. pp. 165–210. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical and Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Hale, T.: A Rare European Bison Has Been Found Decapitated On A Reserve,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: College Textbooks: Enhanced Offerings Appear to Drive Recent Price Increases. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Monk, K.J.: Effects of distractors and force feedback on an aimed movement task in a CDTI environment, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B.: Keeping the Dream Kickin’, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowman 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bowman 2012; Ramesh and Goswami 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ramesh and Goswami 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Soares-Filho et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical and Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationOpt. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0306-8919
ISSN (online)1572-817X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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