How to format your references using the Optical and Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical and Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duffy, T.S.: Mineralogy at the extremes. Nature. 451, 269–270 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Aldecoa, R., Marín, I.: Exploring the limits of community detection strategies in complex networks. Sci. Rep. 3, 2216 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Ridgwell, A.J., Kennedy, M.J., Caldeira, K.: Carbonate deposition, climate stability, and Neoproterozoic ice ages. Science. 302, 859–862 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nussman, M., Coleman, F.C., Figueira, W.F., Ueland, J.S., Crowder, L.B.: The Recreational Fisher’s Perspective. Science. 307, 1560c–1561c (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheller-Sheridan, C.: Basic Guide to Dental Instruments. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK (2011)
An edited book
Sackheim, K.A. ed: Rehab Clinical Pocket Guide: Rehabilitation Medicine. Springer, New York, NY (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Treerattanapitak, K., Jaruskulchai, C.: Generalized Agglomerative Fuzzy Clustering. In: Huang, T., Zeng, Z., Li, C., and Leung, C.S. (eds.) Neural Information Processing: 19th International Conference, ICONIP 2012, Doha, Qatar, November 12-15, 2012, Proceedings, Part III. pp. 34–41. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical and Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Astonishing Time-Lapse Of Hawaii’s Volcanoes


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Critical Infrastructure Protection: National Plan for Information Systems Protection. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2000)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Platt, J.B.: Feast in the time of terror: Stalinist temporal paradox and the 1937 Pushkin Jubilee, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J.: Williams Expected to Get His Own Show on MSNBC, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Duffy 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Aldecoa and Marín 2013; Duffy 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aldecoa and Marín 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Nussman et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical and Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationOpt. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0306-8919
ISSN (online)1572-817X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles