How to format your references using the Optical and Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical and Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A.: Animal behaviour: Come mate with me. Nature. 526, S8-10 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Grimes, R.W., Nuttall, W.J.: Generating the option of a two-stage nuclear renaissance. Science. 329, 799–803 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Wisniewski, W., Patschger, M., Rüssel, C.: Viscous fingering and dendritic growth of surface crystallized Sr2TiSi2O8 fresnoite. Sci. Rep. 3, 3558 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hu, T., Chung, Y.M., Guan, M., Ma, M., Ma, J., Berek, J.S., Hu, M.C.-T.: Reprogramming ovarian and breast cancer cells into non-cancerous cells by low-dose metformin or SN-38 through FOXO3 activation. Sci. Rep. 4, 5810 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, D.: TKO Management! John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2007)
An edited book
Bugliesi, M., Preneel, B., Sassone, V., Wegener, I. eds: Automata, Languages and Programming: 33rd International Colloquium, ICALP 2006, Venice, Italy, July 10-14, 2006, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Sarkar, M., Theuwissen, A.: Material Classification Using CMOS Polarization Sensor. In: Theuwissen, A. (ed.) A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor. pp. 157–184. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical and Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Scientists Make Progress In The Development Of A “One-Size-Fits-All” Artificial Blood, https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/scientists-make-progress-development-one-size-fits-all-artificial-blood/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Developing and Using Questionnaires. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1993)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fulton, E.: Differential effects of nicotine on prospective memory, sustained attention, and working memory, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly, C.: A Holiday Gift Guide To a Library of Books With Local Connections, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Grimes and Nuttall 2010; Maxmen 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grimes and Nuttall 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical and Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationOpt. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0306-8919
ISSN (online)1572-817X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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