How to format your references using the Optical and Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical and Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brunham, R.C.: IMMUNOLOGY. A Chlamydia vaccine on the horizon. Science. 348, 1322–1323 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ford, R., Spafford, E.H.: Computer science. Happy birthday, dear viruses. Science. 317, 210–211 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gollo, L.L., Kinouchi, O., Copelli, M.: Single-neuron criticality optimizes analog dendritic computation. Sci. Rep. 3, 3222 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gallup, C.D., Cheng, H., Taylor, F.W., Edwards, R.L.: Direct determination of the timing of sea level change during termination II. Science. 295, 310–313 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coussy, O.: Poromechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2005)
An edited book
Sun, Z., Lai, J., Chen, X., Tan, T. eds: Biometric Recognition: 6th Chinese Conference, CCBR 2011, Beijing, China, December 3-4, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Rosi, M., Falcinelli, S., Balucani, N., Casavecchia, P., Skouteris, D.: A Theoretical Study of Formation Routes and Dimerization of Methanimine and Implications for the Aerosols Formation in the Upper Atmosphere of Titan. In: Murgante, B., Misra, S., Carlini, M., Torre, C.M., Nguyen, H.-Q., Taniar, D., Apduhan, B.O., and Gervasi, O. (eds.) Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2013: 13th International Conference, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, June 24-27, 2013, Proceedings, Part I. pp. 47–56. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical and Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Italy’s Volcanic Rocks Like Reinforced Roman Concrete,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Summary of United States Assistance to Jordan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1973)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garapati, S.H.: Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Assembly Procedures of Steel Fulcra of Bascule Bridges, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L.: That Gravy Boat Has Sailed, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brunham 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Brunham 2015; Ford and Spafford 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ford and Spafford 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Gallup et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical and Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationOpt. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0306-8919
ISSN (online)1572-817X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles