How to format your references using the Frontiers in Psychopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Psychopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van der Oost, J. (2013). Molecular biology. New tool for genome surgery. Science 339, 768–770.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pertsinidis, A., and Ling, X. S. (2001). Diffusion of point defects in two-dimensional colloidal crystals. Nature 413, 147–150.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schrater, P. R., Knill, D. C., and Simoncelli, E. P. (2001). Perceiving visual expansion without optic flow. Nature 410, 816–819.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li, X., Lu, C., Dai, J., Dong, S., Chen, Y., Hu, N., et al. (2014). Novel multiferroicity in GdMnO3 thin films with self-assembled nano-twinned domains. Sci. Rep. 4, 7019.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Malley, C. (2014). Bonds Without Borders. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kahle, R., and Rathjen, M. eds. (2015). Gentzen’s Centenary: The Quest for Consistency. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Nuutila, E., Törmä, S., Kinnunen, P., and Malmi, L. (2008). “Learning Programming with the PBL Method — Experiences on PBL Cases and Tutoring,” in Reflections on the Teaching of Programming: Methods and Implementations Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. J. Bennedsen, M. E. Caspersen, and M. Kölling (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Psychopathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Action shot of sexual reproduction of 100-million-year-old-flower has been preserved in amber. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Airport Financing: Annual Funding As Much As $3 Billion Less Than Planned Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valencia, G. M. (2015). A Phenomenological Study of Adults Earning a Graduate Degree after Age 60.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002). Dreams Taste Bittersweet As a Small Store Is Sold. New York Times, 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van der Oost, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Pertsinidis and Ling, 2001; van der Oost, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pertsinidis and Ling, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Psychopathology
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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