How to format your references using the Discrete Event Dynamic Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discrete Event Dynamic Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirschvink JL (2014) Sensory biology: Radio waves zap the biomagnetic compass. Nature 509:296–297
A journal article with 2 authors
Chameides W, Oppenheimer M (2007) Climate change. Carbon trading over taxes. Science 315:1670
A journal article with 3 authors
Mace GM, Gittleman JL, Purvis A (2003) Preserving the tree of life. Science 300:1707–1709
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Movshovich R, Bianchi A, Capan C, et al (2004) Electron-spin domains: magnetic enhancement of superconductivity. Nature 427:802; discussion 802

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maji P, Pal SK (2012) Rough-Fuzzy Pattern Recognition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Medhi D, Nogueira JM, Pfeifer T, Wu SF (eds) (2007) IP Operations and Management: 7th IEEE International Workshop, IPOM 2007 San José, USA, October 31 - November 2, 2007 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Dao P, Schönhuth A, Hormozdiari F, et al (2009) Quantifying Systemic Evolutionary Changes by Color Coding Confidence-Scored PPI Networks. In: Salzberg SL, Warnow T (eds) Algorithms in Bioinformatics: 9th International Workshop, WABI 2009, Philadelphia, PA, USA, September 12-13, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discrete Event Dynamic Systems.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Neanderthals Used Eagle Talons to Make Jewelry. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Early Education and Care: Overlap Indicates Need to Assess Crosscutting Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharma V (2017) Functional Characterization of Na+/Ca2+ Exchangers in Caenorhabditis elegans. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) Coaching The Kayakers On 2 Wheels. New York Times B17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kirschvink 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chameides and Oppenheimer 2007; Kirschvink 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chameides and Oppenheimer 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Movshovich et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscrete Event Dynamic Systems
AbbreviationDiscrete Event Dyn. Syst.: Theory Appl.
ISSN (print)0924-6703
ISSN (online)1573-7594
ScopeControl and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles