How to format your references using the Frontiers in Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stevenson DJ. Planetary science. Jupiter and its moons. Science (2001) 294:71–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heyduk AF, Nocera DG. Hydrogen produced from hydrohalic acid solutions by a two-electron mixed-valence photocatalyst. Science (2001) 293:1639–1641.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chuang Y-C, Wu J-Y, Lin M-F. Electric field dependence of excitation spectra in AB-stacked bilayer graphene. Sci Rep (2013) 3:1368.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Barken D, Wang CJ, Kearns J, Cheong R, Hoffmann A, Levchenko A. Comment on “Oscillations in NF-kappaB signaling control the dynamics of gene expression.” Science (2005) 308:52; author reply 52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cotarca L, Eckert H. Phosgenations - A Handbook. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA (2005).
An edited book
Wittmann C ed. Immobilisation of DNA on Chips I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2005). XIV, 195 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
May N, Weber I. “Information Gathering for Semantic Service Discovery and Composition in Business Process Modeling.,” In: Dietz JLG, Albani A, Barjis J, editors. Advances in Enterprise Engineering I: 4th International Workshop CIAO! and 4th International Workshop EOMAS, held at CAiSE 2008, Montpellier, France, June 16-17, 2008. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2008). p. 46–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Spanish Start-Up To Build The First European Reusable Rocket. IFLScience (2017) [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Administrative Operations and Financial Transactions, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1972).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olch R. Low cost/no cost quality of life programs in non-profit theatre. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets’ Bullpen Undermines An Outburst Of Offense. New York Times (2017)SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Psychiatry
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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