How to format your references using the Frontiers in Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow N. Tissue preparation: Tissue issues. Nature (2007) 448:959–963.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domazet-Lošo T, Tautz D. A phylogenetically based transcriptome age index mirrors ontogenetic divergence patterns. Nature (2010) 468:815–818.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liljas A, Ehrenberg M, Åqvist J. Comment on “The mechanism for activation of GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome.” Science (2011) 333:37; author reply 37.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
McComas DJ, Allegrini F, Bagenal F, Crary F, Ebert RW, Elliott H, Stern A, Valek P. Diverse plasma populations and structures in Jupiter’s magnetotail. Science (2007) 318:217–220.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Willan AR, Briggs AH. Statistical Analysis of Cost-effectiveness Data. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (2006).
An edited book
Yang VW, Bialkowska AB eds. Intestinal Tumorigenesis: Mechanisms of Development & Progression. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing (2015).
A chapter in an edited book
Antonov A, Belova K, Chepurko V. “On One Method of Reliability Coefficients Calculation for Objects in Non-Homogeneous Event Flows,” in Mathematical and Statistical Models and Methods in Reliability: Applications to Medicine, Finance, and Quality Control, eds. V. V. Rykov, N. Balakrishnan, M. S. Nikulin (Boston, MA: Birkhäuser), 51–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew E. Even Without Written Codes, Ethical Standards For Human Research Existed Before World War II. IFLScience (2015) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Airlines: Weak Financial Structure Threatens Competition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1991).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brigida MD. Target stock price runup prior to acquisitions. (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cheever S. ‘Why Didn’t Rebecca Stop at the Railroad Crossing?’ New York Times (2014)MM46.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Psychiatry
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

Other styles