How to format your references using the Frontiers in Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rawlins EL. Stem cells: Emergency back-up for lung repair. Nature (2015) 517:556–557.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bercovici D, Karato S-I. Whole-mantle convection and the transition-zone water filter. Nature (2003) 425:39–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sanders TA, Llagostera E, Barna M. Specialized filopodia direct long-range transport of SHH during vertebrate tissue patterning. Nature (2013) 497:628–632.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Carmona-Fontaine C, Matthews HK, Kuriyama S, Moreno M, Dunn GA, Parsons M, Stern CD, Mayor R. Contact inhibition of locomotion in vivo controls neural crest directional migration. Nature (2008) 456:957–961.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paterson JC. Lean Auditing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (2015).
An edited book
Mark D. Beginning iPhone 4 Development: Exploring the iOS SDK. Nutting J, LaMarche J, editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress (2011). XVI, 676 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
De Simone A, Dong Y, Vivancos PD, Foyer CH. “GSH Partitioning Between the Nucleus and Cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana.,” In: De Kok LJ, Hawkesford MJ, Rennenberg H, Saito K, Schnug E, editors. Molecular Physiology and Ecophysiology of Sulfur. Proceedings of the International Plant Sulfur Workshop. Cham: Springer International Publishing (2015). p. 37–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. New Horizons Suffers Glitch Just Ten Days Before its Arrival at Pluto. IFLScience (2015) [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Assessment of the Explanation That Immigration and Customs Enforcement Provided for Its Subsequent Transfer from the Spectrum Relocation Fund. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2008).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nam S. A method for teaching jazz improvisation to beginning pianists in a group setting. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rueb ES. Before Fire Under Tracks in East Harlem, a Business Took Root. New York Times (2016)A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Psychiatry
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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