How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurodegeneration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurodegeneration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Madariaga, R. (2007). Geophysics. Slippery when hot. Science 316, 842–843.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armitage, A. E., and Drakesmith, H. (2014). Genetics. The battle for iron. Science 346, 1299–1300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shi, Y., Evans, J. E., and Rock, K. L. (2003). Molecular identification of a danger signal that alerts the immune system to dying cells. Nature 425, 516–521.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sheehy, A. M., Gaddis, N. C., Choi, J. D., and Malim, M. H. (2002). Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature 418, 646–650.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sox, H. C., Higgins, M. C., and Owens, D. K. (2013). Medical Decision Making. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rhodes, J. (2009). The q-theory of Finite Semigroups. , ed. B. Steinberg Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Falez, F., and Papalia, M. (2005). “Le vie di accesso nelle artroprotesi di ginocchio di primo impianto,” in La protesi di ginocchio di primo impianto, ed. N. Pace (Milano: Springer), 63–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurodegeneration.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016). Two Galapagos Islands House The World’s Largest Shark Biomass. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Observations on Management of Department of Education’s Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Larson, E. B. (2014). Bahamian Quaternary geology and the global carbon budget.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016). 139 Years Ago: American Museum of Natural History Opens Its Permanent Home. New York Times, C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Madariaga, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Madariaga, 2007; Armitage and Drakesmith, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Armitage and Drakesmith, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sheehy et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurodegeneration
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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