How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurodegeneration citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurodegeneration. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D. (2000). France finally picks Parisian site for new synchrotron. Nature 407, 119–120.
A journal article with 2 authors
Istvan, E. S., and Deisenhofer, J. (2001). Structural mechanism for statin inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. Science 292, 1160–1164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, K., Zhang, Y., and Lee, S. E. (2008). Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATM orthologue suppresses break-induced chromosome translocations. Nature 454, 543–546.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ostapcuk, V., Mohn, F., Carl, S. H., Basters, A., Hess, D., Iesmantavicius, V., et al. (2018). Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein recruits HP1 and CHD4 to control lineage-specifying genes. Nature 557, 739–743.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malcolm, D. (2012). The British and Irish Short Story Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bostan, B. ed. (2016). Gamer Psychology and Behavior. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rabung, S., Wieser, M., Thomas, A., Testoni, I., and Evans, C. (2016). “Psychometric evaluation of the German version of the revised spontaneity assessment inventory (SAI-R),” in Psychodrama. Empirical Research and Science 2, eds. C. Stadler, M. Wieser, and K. Kirk (Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden), 25–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurodegeneration.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Doubt Raised About Higgs Boson Discovery. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Customs Service Modernization: Actions Initiated to Correct ACE Management and Technical Weaknesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, A. N. (2017). Deadly force: Perceptions of police and exploration of strategies used by African American mothers to protect their sons.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Thomas, K. (2011). Ready to Take a Faithful Leap. New York Times, ST6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Butler, 2000; Istvan and Deisenhofer, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Istvan and Deisenhofer, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Ostapcuk et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurodegeneration
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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