How to format your references using the Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gingerich, O. (2009). Year of astronomy: Mankind’s place in the Universe. Nature, 457(7225), 28–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Plaçais, P.-Y., & Preat, T. (2013). To favor survival under food shortage, the brain disables costly memory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6118), 440–442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hatano, T., Stopa, M., & Tarucha, S. (2005). Single-electron delocalization in hybrid vertical-lateral double quantum dots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5732), 268–271.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lemay, S. G., Janssen, J. W., van den Hout, M., Mooij, M., Bronikowski, M. J., Willis, P. A., et al. (2001). Two-dimensional imaging of electronic wavefunctions in carbon nanotubes. Nature, 412(6847), 617–620.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernando, A., Worrall, S. T., & Ekmekcioǧlu, E. (2013). 3DTV. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kő, A., & Francesconi, E. (Eds.). (2015). Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective: 4th International Conference, EGOVIS 2015, Valencia, Spain, September 1-3, 2015, Proceedings (1st ed. 2015., Vol. 9265). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Regine, G., Atzori, M., & Fabbri, R. (2012). Conclusioni. In M. Atzori & R. Fabbri (Eds.), Ecocontrastografia dell’apparato urinario (pp. 55–56). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 1). The Five Most Poisonous Substances: From Polonium To Mercury. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). First Look at Senior Executive Service Performance Awards/NASA (No. FPCD-80-85). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sadr, E. I. (2013). To whisper in the king’s ear: Economists in Pahlavi and Islamic Iran (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gaitskill, M. (2015, December 4). An Unknowable Truth. New York Times, p. M2174.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gingerich 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Gingerich 2009; Plaçais and Preat 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Plaçais and Preat 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Lemay et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education
ISSN (online)2363-5169

Other styles