How to format your references using the Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lemke, P. (2001). Climate. Open windows to the polar oceans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5522), 1670–1671.
A journal article with 2 authors
Collini, E., & Scholes, G. D. (2009). Coherent intrachain energy migration in a conjugated polymer at room temperature. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5912), 369–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lillo, F., Farmer, J. D., & Mantegna, R. N. (2003). Econophysics: Master curve for price-impact function. Nature, 421(6919), 129–130.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Quesenberry, P. J., Dooner, G., Dooner, M., & Abedi, M. (2005). Developmental biology: Ignoratio elenchi: red herrings in stem cell research. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5725), 1121–1122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsai, C. S. (2006). Biomacromolecules. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bini, G. (2014). Geometric Invariant Theory for Polarized Curves. (F. Felici, M. Melo, & F. Viviani, Eds.) (Vol. 2122). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Compernolle, T. (2016). Developmental Coaching from a System’s Point of View. In M. F. R. K. de Vries, K. Korotov, E. Florent-Treacy, & C. Rook (Eds.), Coach and Couch: The Psychology of Making Better Leaders (pp. 41–63). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, December 19). Galileo, Europe’s Answer To GPS, Just Went Online. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Railroad Safety--Responses to Posthearing Questions (No. GAO-07-610R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leung, R. (2014). The Effect of Mission Assurance on ELV Launch Success Rate: An Analysis of Two Management Systems for Launch Vehicles (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mcdonough, J. (2017, April 21). My Sister Wants to Buy My Dad a Drone For Father’s Day. New York Times, p. MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lemke 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Collini and Scholes 2009; Lemke 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Collini and Scholes 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Quesenberry et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education
ISSN (online)2363-5169

Other styles