How to format your references using the Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M. (2002). Power vacuum expands as CDC director resigns. Nature, 415(6875), 946.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lendlein, A., & Langer, R. (2002). Biodegradable, elastic shape-memory polymers for potential biomedical applications. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1673–1676.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parker, J. D., Burkepile, D. E., & Hay, M. E. (2006). Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5766), 1459–1461.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kovalchuk, I., Kovalchuk, O., Kalck, V., Boyko, V., Filkowski, J., Heinlein, M., & Hohn, B. (2003). Pathogen-induced systemic plant signal triggers DNA rearrangements. Nature, 423(6941), 760–762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, C. (2010). Fibonacci Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
de Souza, G. F. M. (Ed.). (2012). Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, H.-K. J., Yun, Y.-M., Yoon, K.-H., & Cho, D.-S. (2014). Design of Automatic Paper Identification System with QR Code for Digital Forensics. In J. J. (jong H. Park, H. Adeli, N. Park, & I. Woungang (Eds.), Mobile, Ubiquitous, and Intelligent Computing: MUSIC 2013 (pp. 25–30). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 10). No, The CDC Did Not Apologize And Say The Flu Vaccine Doesn’t Work. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Reasons for Funding Selected Entitlements Programs by Other Than 1-Year Appropriations (No. PAD-78-46b). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bearden, B. A. (2008). Followership as perceived by leaders in a multidisciplinary healthcare organization (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, March 2). Justices Express Concern Over Aspects of Some Texas Redistricting. New York Times, p. A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Lendlein and Langer 2002; Wadman 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lendlein and Langer 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kovalchuk et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education
ISSN (online)2363-5169

Other styles