How to format your references using the Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, E. (2004). Fast Track: charting the course of your postdoc. Nature, 431(7012), 1126–1127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heinberg, R., & Fridley, D. (2010). The end of cheap coal. Nature, 468(7322), 367–369.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guo, G., Wang, W., & Bradley, A. (2004). Mismatch repair genes identified using genetic screens in Blm-deficient embryonic stem cells. Nature, 429(6994), 891–895.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, S., Li, Y., Zhao, T., & Wang, Q. (2014). Robust ferromagnetism in monolayer chromium nitride. Scientific reports, 4, 5241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Windom, C. A., Sr., Gaidhani, H., & Fontana, A. (2010). Virtualizing. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Ali, S. Z. (2007). Breast Cytopathology. (A. V. Parwani, Ed.) (Vol. 4). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bagirov, A. M., & Mohebi, E. (2015). Nonsmooth Optimization Based Algorithms in Cluster Analysis. In M. E. Celebi (Ed.), Partitional Clustering Algorithms (pp. 99–146). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, October 10). Sea Level Rise May Mean That The UK Loses Some Of Its Mountains. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). D.C. Public School Enrollment (No. AIMD-95-229R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zometa, E. (2017). Imaging Service Consultations: Imaging Express (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
The following scouting report on the Oakland Athletics was prepared by Tom Kelly, The Manager of The, & with the editorial assistance of Michael Martinez. (1988, October 14). This Team Flattens Opponents. New York Times, p. D17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Heinberg and Fridley 2010; Russo 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heinberg and Fridley 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education
ISSN (online)2363-5169

Other styles