How to format your references using the Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D. (2002). Royal Institution’s director blasts scientific sexism. Nature, 420(6915), 453.
A journal article with 2 authors
DiNardo, S., & Braun, R. E. (2007). Developmental biology. Home for the precious few. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5845), 1696–1697.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, J., An, J., & Ting, C. S. (2013). Interaction-induced localization of mobile impurities in ultracold systems. Scientific reports, 3, 3147.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Snoek, L. B., Sterken, M. G., Volkers, R. J. M., Klatter, M., Bosman, K. J., Bevers, R. P. J., et al. (2014). A rapid and massive gene expression shift marking adolescent transition in C. elegans. Scientific reports, 4, 3912.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, J. C., & Naeim, F. (2012). Basic Structural Dynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cazenave, T., Winands, M. H. M., & Iida, H. (Eds.). (2014). Computer Games: Workshop on Computer Games, CGW 2013, Held in Conjunction with the 23rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IJCAI 2013, Beijing, China, August 3, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 408). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Brandão, S., Parente, M., Silva, A. R., Da Roza, T., Mascarenhas, T., Ramos, I., & Natal Jorge, R. M. (2015). The Impairment of Female Pelvic Ligaments and Its Relation With Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: Biomechanical Analysis. In J. M. R. S. Tavares & R. M. Natal Jorge (Eds.), Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences: Methods and Applications: ICCEBS 2013 -- International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences (pp. 63–73). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, November 19). 6 Surprising Downsides Of Being Extremely Intelligent. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance (No. GAO-07-609). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis, P. J. (2009). A comparison of a high and low -performing school in the Soroti Catholic Diocese, Uganda, East -Africa (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B., & Ivory, D. (2016, September 8). Bill to Weaken Dodd-Frank’s Rules on Private Equity Nears House Vote. New York Times, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Adam 2002; DiNardo and Braun 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DiNardo and Braun 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Snoek et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education
ISSN (online)2363-5169

Other styles