How to format your references using the American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seiff A. Dynamics of Jupiter’s atmosphere. Nature 403: 603, 605, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Panian J, Wiltschko D. Ramp initiation in a thrust wedge. Nature 427: 624–627, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sudhakar YA, Verma RK, Pawar SC. Type IV collagen α1-chain noncollagenous domain blocks MMP-2 activation both in-vitro and in-vivo. Sci Rep 4: 4136, 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen R, Wheeler PJ, Di Ventra M, Natelson D. Enhanced noise at high bias in atomic-scale Au break junctions. Sci Rep 4: 4221, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lau VKN, Ricky Kwok Y-K. Channel-Adaptive Technologies and Cross-Layer Designs for Wireless Systems with Multiple Antennas. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
An edited book
Bull R, editor. Investigative Interviewing. New York, NY: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
De Petro P, Battiston B, Matteotti R, Petraz M, Molino D. Omero: diafisi. In: Traumatologia scheletrica: Imaging integrato clinico-radiologico, edited by Faletti C. Milano: Springer, 2016, p. 81–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Sex Robots Are Ancient History [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2016. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Comprehensive Review of U.S. Spectrum Management with Broad Stakeholder Involvement Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horta G. The potential of the Eurozone crisis to mobilize extreme right support in Spain, Portugal, and Italy. University of North Carolina: 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. An Alternative to New York Hotels, if Not Welcome by All. New York Times: B14, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 4, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
AbbreviationAm. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
ISSN (print)0193-1857
ISSN (online)1522-1547
Physiology (medical)

Other styles