How to format your references using the American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morse SS. Retrospective: Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008). Science 319: 1351, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ye C, Tsukruk VV. Materials assembly. Designing two-dimensional materials that spring rapidly into three-dimensional shapes. Science 347: 130–131, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gambardella A, Prezioso M, Cavallini M. Tunnel conductivity switching in a single nanoparticle-based nano floating gate memory. Sci Rep 4: 4196, 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jeon S, Jang JY, Youn JR, Jeong J-H, Brenner H, Song YS. Fullerene embedded shape memory nanolens array. Sci Rep 3: 3269, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ponniah P. Data Warehousing Fundamentals for it Professionals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Lungarella M, Iida F, Bongard J, Pfeifer R, editors. 50 Years of Artificial Intelligence: Essays Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen Y, Yu H. DNA-Based Nanotechnology Biosensors for Surgical Diagnosis. In: Nanotechnology Enabled In situ Sensors for Monitoring Health, edited by Webster TJ. New York, NY: Springer, 2011, p. 75–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. So You Can Now 3D Print Sculptures Made Of American Cheese [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2017. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: WMATA Is Addressing Many Challenges, but Capital Planning Could Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horn SW. Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics of Accusative-Quotative Constructions in Japanese. Ohio State University: 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sutherland J. You Don’t Know Jane. New York Times: BR11, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (4, 6–8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
AbbreviationAm. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
ISSN (print)0193-1857
ISSN (online)1522-1547
Physiology (medical)

Other styles