How to format your references using the American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaherty JB. Seismic evidence for hotspot-induced buoyant flow beneath the Reykjanes Ridge. Science 293: 1645–1647, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gutierrez MP, Lee LP. Engineering. Multiscale design and integration of sustainable building functions. Science 341: 247–248, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pregibon DC, Toner M, Doyle PS. Multifunctional encoded particles for high-throughput biomolecule analysis. Science 315: 1393–1396, 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li H-C, Hsieh F-J, Chen C-P, Chang M-Y, Hsieh PCH, Chen C-C, Hung S-U, Wu C-C, Chang H-C. The hemocompatibility of oxidized diamond nanocrystals for biomedical applications. Sci Rep 3: 3044, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mallée R, Fuchs W, Eligehausen R. Design of Fastenings for Use in Concrete - the CEN/TS 1992-4 Provisions. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013.
An edited book
Calcagnini G, Favaretto I, editors. Small Businesses in the Aftermath of the Crisis: International Analyses and Policies. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Araç D, Sträter N, Seiradake E. Understanding the Structural Basis of Adhesion GPCR Functions. In: Adhesion G Protein-coupled Receptors: Molecular, Physiological and Pharmacological Principles in Health and Disease, edited by Langenhan T, Schöneberg T. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, p. 67–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Scientists Investigate Mysterious “Crater” In Antarctica [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2016. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Project Management Oversight Benefits and Future Funding Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vianna MH. An exploration of the factors that influence Brazilian students’ fluency of English: A case study. University of Phoenix: 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Road Scholar. New York Times: M226, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 4, 7, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
AbbreviationAm. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
ISSN (print)0193-1857
ISSN (online)1522-1547
Physiology (medical)

Other styles