How to format your references using the American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chandrashekar CM. Two-component Dirac-like Hamiltonian for generating quantum walk on one-, two- and three-dimensional lattices. Sci Rep 3: 2829, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Etienne-Manneville S, Hall A. Rho GTPases in cell biology. Nature 420: 629–635, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alley RB, Fahnestock M, Joughin I. Climate change. Understanding glacier flow in changing times. Science 322: 1061–1062, 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen B, Eddaoudi M, Hyde ST, O’Keeffe M, Yaghi OM. Interwoven metal-organic framework on a periodic minimal surface with extra-large pores. Science 291: 1021–1023, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gardner S, Birley S. Blogging for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Mattens F, editor. Meaning and Language: Phenomenological Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen C-W, Chan L-W, Tsai Y-P, Hung Y-P. Augmented Stereo Panoramas. In: Computer Vision – ACCV 2006: 7th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Hyderabad, India, January 13-16, 2006. Proceedings, Part I, edited by Narayanan PJ, Nayar SK, Shum H-Y. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, p. 41–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. A New Volcano May Be Emerging Beneath A Small New Zealand Town [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2016. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Methodology Transfer Paper 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conner PA. The STAR Math test as a predictor of Arkansas BenchmarkTest scores. Lindenwood University: 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. For Rodriguez, It’s a No-Brainer: Just Play. New York Times: D1, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 4, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
AbbreviationAm. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
ISSN (print)0193-1857
ISSN (online)1522-1547
Physiology (medical)

Other styles