How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuro-otology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuro-otology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruoff, R. S. (2010). Journal club. A physical chemist is excited by the electronic potential of a new arrangement of carbon sheets. Nature 463, 853.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goette, L., and Meier, S. (2011). Economics. Can integration tame conflicts? Science 334, 1356–1357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, J., Kimble, H. J., and Katori, H. (2008). Quantum state engineering and precision metrology using state-insensitive light traps. Science 320, 1734–1738.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gong, K., Du, F., Xia, Z., Durstock, M., and Dai, L. (2009). Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays with high electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction. Science 323, 760–764.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reinhard, P.-G., and Suraud, E. (2008). Introduction to Cluster Dynamics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Betti, R., Guerraggio, A., and Termini, S. eds. (2013). Storie e protagonisti della matematica italiana: per raccontare 20 anni di «Lettera Matematica Pristem». Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Roth, B., and Klakow, D. (2010). “Combining Wikipedia-Based Concept Models for Cross-Language Retrieval,” in Advances in Multidisciplinary Retrieval: First Information Retrieval Facility Conference, IRFC 2010, Vienna, Austria, May 31, 2010. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. H. Cunningham, A. Hanbury, and S. Rüger (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuro-otology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). SpaceX Files Protest Against Air Force Over National Security Launch Monopoly. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Highway Safety: Research Continues on a Variety of Factors That Contribute to Motor Vehicle Crashes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roubin, A. M. (2014). A resource manual of bullying intervention programs for parents, educators, and community officials in the Los Angeles area.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. (2014). About That Night. New York Times, MM21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruoff, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ruoff, 2010; Goette and Meier, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goette and Meier, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Gong et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuro-otology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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