How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuro-otology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuro-otology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pockley, P. (2001). Gene screens for nuclear veterans. Nature 412, 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boroson, T. A., and Lauer, T. R. (2009). A candidate sub-parsec supermassive binary black hole system. Nature 458, 53–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu, Z., Klem, A. M., and Ramu, Y. (2001). Ion conduction pore is conserved among potassium channels. Nature 413, 809–813.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang, W., Wang, Y., Tu, L., Feng, Y., Klein, T., and Wang, J.-P. (2014). Magnetoresistive performance and comparison of supermagnetic nanoparticles on giant magnetoresistive sensor-based detection system. Sci. Rep. 4, 5716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reiman, J. (2012). As Free and as Just as Possible. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Taourel, P. ed. (2011). CT of the Acute Abdomen. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Henkel, M., Stratigaki, C., Stirna, J., Loucopoulos, P., Zorgios, Y., and Migiakis, A. (2016). “Extending Capabilities with Context Awareness,” in Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops: CAiSE 2016 International Workshops, Ljubljana, Slovenia, June 13-17, 2016, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing., eds. J. Krogstie, H. Mouratidis, and J. Su (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 40–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuro-otology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Dig Begins For Legendary Nazi Gold Train. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Impact Aid: Most School Construction Requests Are Unfunded and Outdated. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stefanek, A. (2019). Quantitative Purchasing Structure for Ferrous Scrap.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaplan, T., and Pilon, M. (2013). Attorney General Turns Focus to New York’s Pets. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pockley, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Pockley, 2001; Boroson and Lauer, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boroson and Lauer, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuro-otology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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