How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuro-otology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuro-otology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. (2000). Laying a firm foundation for interdisciplinary research endeavours. Nature 406, 107–108.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boos, W. R., and Kuang, Z. (2010). Dominant control of the South Asian monsoon by orographic insulation versus plateau heating. Nature 463, 218–222.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gosse, N. J., Nevin, L. M., and Baier, H. (2008). Retinotopic order in the absence of axon competition. Nature 452, 892–895.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schaffitzel, C., Oswald, M., Berger, I., Ishikawa, T., Abrahams, J. P., Koerten, H. K., et al. (2006). Structure of the E. coli signal recognition particle bound to a translating ribosome. Nature 444, 503–506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lane, C. (2011). Magnolia. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Maulik, N., and Karagiannis, T. eds. (2014). Molecular mechanisms and physiology of disease: Implications for Epigenetics and Health. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Patel, S. K. S., Kumar, P., Singh, M., Lee, J.-K., and Kalia, V. C. (2015). “Integrative Approach for Biohydrogen and Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production,” in Microbial Factories: Biofuels, Waste treatment: Volume 1, ed. V. C. Kalia (New Delhi: Springer India), 73–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuro-otology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Cosmic Coincidence: The International Space Station Passes By Venus And Saturn. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). Free Legal Services for the Poor: Increased Coordination, Community Legal Education, and Outreach Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aquino-Centeno, S. (2009). Contesting social memories and identities in the Zapotec Sierra of Oaxaca, Mexico.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Van Gelder, S. K. C. by L. (2005). Arts, Briefly; Coppola and Putin Meet. New York Times, E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon, 2000, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boos and Kuang, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Schaffitzel et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuro-otology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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