How to format your references using the Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tittensor, D. P. (2015). Ecology: Ecosystem vulnerability to ocean warming. Nature 528, 43–44.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singel, D. J., and Stamler, J. S. (2004). Blood traffic control. Nature 430, 297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boots, M., Hudson, P. J., and Sasaki, A. (2004). Large shifts in pathogen virulence relate to host population structure. Science 303, 842–844.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tschauner, O., Huang, S., Greenberg, E., Prakapenka, V. B., Ma, C., Rossman, G. R., et al. (2018). Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: Evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle. Science 359, 1136–1139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Banerjee, S., and Lawrence, V. (2010). Managing Dementia in a Multicultural Society. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Surman, C. B. H. ed. (2013). ADHD in Adults: A Practical Guide to Evaluation and Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiayias, A., Osmanoglu, M., and Tang, Q. (2015). “Graded Signatures,” in Information Security: 18th International Conference, ISC 2015, Trondheim, Norway, September 9-11, 2015, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. J. Lopez and C. J. Mitchell (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 61–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Elephants Born To Stressed Mothers Age Faster. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). Guaranteed Student Loans: Potential Default and Cost Reduction Options. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dinh, H. (2013). A study of cell-based genetic algorithms with applications to neural networks.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B. (2016). MF Global’s Fall May Cost Corzine About $5 Million. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tittensor, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Singel and Stamler, 2004; Tittensor, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singel and Stamler, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Tschauner et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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