How to format your references using the Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keeling, R. F. (2005). Comment on “The ocean sink for anthropogenic CO2.” Science 308, 1743; author reply 1743.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hawkesworth, C. J., and Kemp, A. I. S. (2006). Evolution of the continental crust. Nature 443, 811–817.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reyes, N., Ginter, C., and Boudker, O. (2009). Transport mechanism of a bacterial homologue of glutamate transporters. Nature 462, 880–885.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mayorga, E., Aufdenkampe, A. K., Masiello, C. A., Krusche, A. V., Hedges, J. I., Quay, P. D., et al. (2005). Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers. Nature 436, 538–541.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ravindran, K. (2014). The Mathematics of Financial Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Olivo, M., and Dinish, U. S. eds. (2016). Frontiers in Biophotonics for Translational Medicine: In the Celebration of Year of Light (2015). 1st ed. 2016. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cisneros, L. H., Ganguly, S., Goldstein, R. E., and Kessler, J. O. (2012). “Individual to Collective Dynamics of Swimming Bacteria,” in Natural Locomotion in Fluids and on Surfaces: Swimming, Flying, and Sliding The IMA Volumes in Mathematics and its Applications., eds. S. Childress, A. Hosoi, W. W. Schultz, and J. Wang (New York, NY: Springer), 73–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Which Feels Cooler, Red or Blue? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). Developing and Using Questionnaires. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prietto, M. (2015). No place like home: The problem and the promise of the home psychotherapy office.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Glanz, J. (2016). As Energy Secretary, Perry May Be Pressed to Resume Nuclear Tests. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keeling, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Keeling, 2005; Hawkesworth and Kemp, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hawkesworth and Kemp, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Mayorga et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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