How to format your references using the Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herzberg, C. (2006). Petrology and thermal structure of the Hawaiian plume from Mauna Kea volcano. Nature 444, 605–609.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, W., and Li, H. (2014). How does carbon nanoring deform to spiral induced by carbon nanotube? Sci. Rep. 4, 3865.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pawloski, J. R., Hess, D. T., and Stamler, J. S. (2001). Export by red blood cells of nitric oxide bioactivity. Nature 409, 622–626.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rong, H., Liu, A., Jones, R., Cohen, O., Hak, D., Nicolaescu, R., et al. (2005). An all-silicon Raman laser. Nature 433, 292–294.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen, S., Pedersen-Bjergaard, S., and Rasmussen, K. (2011). Introduction to Pharmaceutical Chemical Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Atweh, B., Graven, M., Secada, W., and Valero, P. eds. (2011). Mapping Equity and Quality in Mathematics Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Busemeyer, J. R., and Trueblood, J. (2009). “Comparison of Quantum and Bayesian Inference Models,” in Quantum Interaction: Third International Symposium, QI 2009, Saarbrücken, Germany, March 25-27, 2009. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. P. Bruza, D. Sofge, W. Lawless, K. van Rijsbergen, and M. Klusch (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 29–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017). First Footage Ever Taken of Spectacular Cuttlefish Battle. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Army Accounting Adjustments--Aviation Systems Command. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Immaneni, R. N. (2015). An efficient approach to machine learning based text classification through distributed computing.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017). Apple’s First Big TV Move: A Spielberg Series Reboot. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Herzberg, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Herzberg, 2006; Chen and Li, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Li, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Rong et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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