How to format your references using the Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2005). Central stations. Nature 433, 439.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boehme, C., and McCamey, D. R. (2012). Physics. Nuclear-spin quantum memory poised to take the lead. Science 336, 1239–1240.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho, M. K., McGee, G., and Magnus, D. (2006). Research conduct. Lessons of the stem cell scandal. Science 311, 614–615.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Derraik, J. G. B., Savage, T., Miles, H. L., Mouat, F., Hofman, P. L., and Cutfield, W. S. (2014). Anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile in prepubertal children born early, full, or late term. Sci. Rep. 4, 6497.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, W.-Y. (2013). NeuroInvesting. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hameurlain, A. ed. (2008). Data Management in Grid and Peer-to-Peer Systems: First International Conference, Globe 2008, Turin, Italy, September 3, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Castro, L. P., Fujiwara, H., Qian, T., and Saitoh, S. (2014). “How to Catch Smoothing Properties and Analyticity of Functions by Computers?,” in Mathematics Without Boundaries: Surveys in Interdisciplinary Research, eds. P. M. Pardalos and T. M. Rassias (New York, NY: Springer), 101–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). “World’s Biggest Dinosaur” Discovered. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Security: Breaches at Federal Agencies and Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gullion, D. K. (2009). The study of interstate and intrastate mobility effects on student achievement.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007). A $10 Million Grant for Homes for the Homeless. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Boehme and McCamey, 2012; Smaglik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boehme and McCamey, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Derraik et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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