How to format your references using the Annals of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Reik W. Stability and flexibility of epigenetic gene regulation in mammalian development. Nature. 2007;447:425–432.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ricklefs RE, Bermingham E. Nonequilibrium diversity dynamics of the Lesser Antillean avifauna. Science. 2001;294:1522–1524.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Nimmerjahn A, Kirchhoff F, Helmchen F. Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science. 2005;308:1314–1318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Jepsen K, Solum D, Zhou T, et al. SMRT-mediated repression of an H3K27 demethylase in progression from neural stem cell to neuron. Nature. 2007;450:415–419.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Rao CL, Narayanamurthy V, Simha KRY. Applied Impact Mechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Qing A, Lee CK, eds. Differential Evolution in Electromagnetics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zhang Z, Huang X, Zhang Z, et al. Force Identification Based on Subspace Identification Algorithms and Homotopy Method. In: Allen M, Mayes RL, Rixen D, eds. Dynamics of Coupled Structures, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 34th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:25–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. New Class Of Star Clusters Have A Weighty Problem. IFLScience. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/new-class-star-clusters-have-weighty-problem/. 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Global Warming: Limitations of General Circulation Models and Costs of Modeling Efforts. RCED-95-164; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; July 13, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Sulaiman Y. The Banteng and the Eagle: Indonesian Foreign Policy and the United States During the Era of Sukarno 1945-1967. Doctoral Dissertation; Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Schmitt E, Bradsher K. After Pair of Crashes in 2 Months, Navy Will Pause for Safety Check. New York Times, August 21, 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Surgery
AbbreviationAnn. Surg.
ISSN (print)0003-4932
ISSN (online)1528-1140
ScopeSurgery

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