How to format your references using the Annals of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christe KO. Obituary: Neil Bartlett (1932-2008). Nature. 2008;455:182.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghezzi I, Ruggles C. Chankillo: a 2300-year-old solar observatory in coastal Peru. Science. 2007;315:1239–1243.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jarillo-Herrero P, van Dam JA, Kouwenhoven LP. Quantum supercurrent transistors in carbon nanotubes. Nature. 2006;439:953–956.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nicewarner-Pena SR, Freeman RG, Reiss BD, et al. Submicrometer metallic barcodes. Science. 2001;294:137–141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Narayanasamy P. Postharvest Pathogens and Disease Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Dincer I, Colpan CO, Kizilkan O, et al., eds. Progress in Clean Energy, Volume 2: Novel Systems and Applications. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Hurley JB, Chertov AO, Lindsay K, et al. Energy Metabolism in the Vertebrate Retina. In: Furukawa T, Hurley JB, Kawamura S, eds. Vertebrate Photoreceptors: Functional Molecular Bases. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2014:91–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why It’s Impossible To Actually Be A Vegetarian. IFLScience. Available from: 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: States’ Collection and Use of Funds for Wireless Enhanced 911 Services. GAO-06-338; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; March 10, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolfenden A. Factors predicting oncology care providers’ behavioral intention to adopt clinical decision support systems. Doctoral Dissertation; University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Pilon M. Race-Fixing Let Musician Reach Sochi, Ski Group Says. New York Times, July 12, 2014, D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Surgery
AbbreviationAnn. Surg.
ISSN (print)0003-4932
ISSN (online)1528-1140

Other styles