How to format your references using the Annals of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Redfield RJ. Comment on “A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus.” Science. 2011;332:1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Minamino T, Namba K. Distinct roles of the FliI ATPase and proton motive force in bacterial flagellar protein export. Nature. 2008;451:485–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kalab P, Weis K, Heald R. Visualization of a Ran-GTP gradient in interphase and mitotic Xenopus egg extracts. Science. 2002;295:2452–2456.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Draganski B, Gaser C, Busch V, et al. Neuroplasticity: changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature. 2004;427:311–312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Tunley M, Whittaker A, Gee J, et al. The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Bhushan B, ed. Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology. 2nd revised and extended edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Francq C, Zakoïan J-M. A Tour in the Asymptotic Theory of GARCH Estimation. In: Mikosch T, Kreiß J-P, Davis RA, et al., eds. Handbook of Financial Time Series. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009:85–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Taub B. Addictions Can Be Detected In The Brain Even After Death. IFLScience. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/addiction-can-detected-brain-even-after-death/. 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC’s Handling of Formal Complaints Filed Against Common Carriers. RCED-93-83; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; March 18, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Garcia-Manglano J. Working for pay or raising a family? Three papers on women’s work expectations and market outcomes. Doctoral Dissertation; University of Maryland, College Park; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kanter J. Bucking Resistance, Canada and E.U. Sign Trade Deal. New York Times, October 30, 2016, A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Surgery
AbbreviationAnn. Surg.
ISSN (print)0003-4932
ISSN (online)1528-1140
ScopeSurgery

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