How to format your references using the Annals of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lynch M. Genomics. Gene duplication and evolution. Science. 2002;297:945–947.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burdon JJ, Thrall PH. Coevolution of plants and their pathogens in natural habitats. Science. 2009;324:755–756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Singh PK, Hopwood J, Sonkusale S. Metamaterials for remote generation of spatially controllable two dimensional array of microplasma. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5964.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang F, Liu P, Sun L, et al. Bio-mimetic nanostructure self-assembled from Au@Ag heterogeneous nanorods and phage fusion proteins for targeted tumor optical detection and photothermal therapy. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6808.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rebonato R. Volatility and Correlation. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Blume YB, Baird WV, Yemets AI, et al., eds. The Plant Cytoskeleton: a Key Tool for Agro-Biotechnology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Quinn AC, Holbrook SP. Critical Care Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. In: Adams JP, Bell D, McKinlay J, eds. Neurocritical Care: A Guide to Practical Management. London: Springer; 2010:33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Four Myths About Allergies You Thought Were True – But Aren’t. IFLScience. Available from: 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Bureau of Indian Affairs Should Do More to Help Educate Indian Students. HRD-77-155; Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; November 3, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Veru PT. The National-Dobro Guitar Company: How the resonator guitar survived the age of electric amplification. Doctoral Dissertation; George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hagerdon MLK. The Triangle. New York Times, August 16, 2016, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Surgery
AbbreviationAnn. Surg.
ISSN (print)0003-4932
ISSN (online)1528-1140

Other styles