How to format your references using the Progress in Disaster Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Disaster Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Physicists celebrate detection of elusive “final” particle. Nature 2000;406:334.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toner DLK, Grima R. Effects of bursty protein production on the noisy oscillatory properties of downstream pathways. Sci Rep 2013;3:2438.
A journal article with 3 authors
Girart JM, Rao R, Marrone DP. Magnetic fields in the formation of sun-like stars. Science 2006;313:812–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee JW, Lee J, Kim C, Cho C-Y, Moon JH. Facile fabrication of sub-100 nm mesoscale inverse opal films and their application in dye-sensitized solar cell electrodes. Sci Rep 2014;4:6804.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ocic O. Oil Refineries in the 21st Century. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2004.
An edited book
Li WD, McMahon C, Ong SK, Nee AYC, editors. Collaborative Product Design and Manufacturing Methodologies and Applications. London: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Wajnberg E. Genetics of the Behavioral Ecology of Egg Parasitoids. In: Consoli FL, Parra JRP, Zucchi RA, editors. Egg Parasitoids in Agroecosystems with Emphasis on Trichogramma, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010, p. 149–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Disaster Science.

Blog post
Carpineti A. We Might Not Talk To Aliens For 1,500 Years. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Adult Basic Education Program: Progress in Reducing Illiteracy and Improvements Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitman S. Operational risk and financial institution leaders’ decision making: A quantitative descriptive correlation study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. One-of-a-Kind Gifts, All Made by Hand. New York Times 2005:14LI17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Disaster Science
ISSN (print)2590-0617

Other styles