# How to format your references using the Progress in Disaster Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Disaster Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
McDonald F. Watching the players at the climate poker table. Nature 2011;480:293.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Turecek R, Trussell LO. Presynaptic glycine receptors enhance transmitter release at a mammalian central synapse. Nature 2001;411:587–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Deuss A, Irving JCE, Woodhouse JH. Regional variation of inner core anisotropy from seismic normal mode observations. Science 2010;328:1018–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Wager TD, Rilling JK, Smith EE, Sokolik A, Casey KL, Davidson RJ, et al. Placebo-induced changes in FMRI in the anticipation and experience of pain. Science 2004;303:1162–7.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Stephans RA. System Safety for the 21 st Century. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
[1]
Pickel G, Sammet K, editors. Transformations of Religiosity: Religion and Religiosity in Eastern Europe 1989 – 2010. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Uohashi K. Harmonic Maps Relative to $$\alpha$$ α -Connections. In: Nielsen F, editor. Geometric Theory of Information, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 81–96.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Disaster Science.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Inoculating Against Science Denial. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/inoculating-against-science-denial/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Unmanaged Risks Threaten Success. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Xiong Y. Immuno-Magnetic T Cell Depletion for Allogeneic Hematological Stem Cell Transplantation. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2008.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Ivory D, Protess B, Palmer G. In American Towns, Pumping Private Profit From Public Works. New York Times 2016:A1.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].