How to format your references using the Basic and Applied Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Basic and Applied Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Midgley GF. Ecology. Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Science. 2012 Jan 13;335(6065):174–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Casals F, Bertranpetit J. Genetics. Human genetic variation, shared and private. Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):39–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Säterberg T, Sellman S, Ebenman B. High frequency of functional extinctions in ecological networks. Nature. 2013 Jul 25;499(7459):468–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Adams RW, Aguilar JA, Atkinson KD, Cowley MJ, Elliott PIP, Duckett SB, et al. Reversible interactions with para-hydrogen enhance NMR sensitivity by polarization transfer. Science. 2009 Mar 27;323(5922):1708–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson DW, Woodward JL. Release. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Nath TK. Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) in Bangladesh. Jashimuddin M, Inoue M, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XV, 176 p. 22 illus., 19 illus. in color. (World Forests; vol. 22).
A chapter in an edited book
Barga R, Fontama V, Tok WH. Integration with Python. In: Fontama V, Tok WH, editors. Predictive Analytics with Microsoft Azure Machine Learning. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2015. p. 103–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Basic and Applied Pathology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Disney Researchers Make Wireless Power Transfer Breakthrough [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Vehicle Safety Inspections: Improved DOT Communication Could Better Inform State Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Aug. Report No.: GAO-15-705.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yi Z. Dynamics of bio-membranes investigated by neutron spin echo: Effects of phospholipid conformations and presence of lidocaine [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N. Parties Backing Putin Make a Strong Showing in Elections. New York Times. 2016 Sep 19;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBasic and Applied Pathology
AbbreviationBasic Appl. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1755-9294
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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