How to format your references using the Basic and Applied Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Basic and Applied Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferry DK. Applied physics. Ohm’s law in a quantum world. Science. 2012 Jan 6;335(6064):45–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rakoff-Nahoum S, Comstock LE. Immunology: Starve a fever, feed the microbiota. Nature. 2014 Oct 30;514(7524):576–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grima JN, Attard D, Gatt R. Materials science. Unusual thermoelastic properties of methanol monohydrate. Science. 2011 Feb 11;331(6018):687–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pachepsky E, Crawford JW, Bown JL, Squire G. Towards a general theory of biodiversity. Nature. 2001 Apr 19;410(6831):923–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fu F. Advanced Modelling Techniques in Structural Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Reusch B, editor. Computational Intelligence, Theory and Applications: International Conference 9th Fuzzy Days in Dortmund, Germany, Sept. 18–20, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. XXX, 802 p. 216 illus., 1 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Liang J, Wang Z, Liu X. On Synchronization of Coupled Delayed Neural Networks. In: Kyamakya K, Halang WA, Unger H, Chedjou JC, Rulkov NF, Li Z, editors. Recent Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronization: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 117–49. (Kacprzyk J, editor. Studies in Computational Intelligence).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Basic and Applied Pathology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Scientists Discover 40 New Genes Linked To Intelligence [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Programs for Land-Grant Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Mar. Report No.: HEHS-96-91R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tahira A. Synthesis of Bivalent Organothiophosphate Inhibitors and Their Inhibition of Butyrylcholinesterase: Studies towards a Potential Treatment of Cognitive Loss Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. It’s Not Billions, But It Can Help Rescue an Artist. New York Times. 2012 Jun 3;BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBasic and Applied Pathology
AbbreviationBasic Appl. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1755-9294
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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