How to format your references using the Basic and Applied Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Basic and Applied Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buzsáki G. Neuroscience. Similar is different in hippocampal networks. Science. 2005 Jul 22;309(5734):568–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones JH, Handcock MS. Social networks: Sexual contacts and epidemic thresholds. Nature. 2003 Jun 5;423(6940):605–6; discussion 606.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morse SS, Garwin RL, Olsiewski PJ. Public health. Next flu pandemic: what to do until the vaccine arrives? Science. 2006 Nov 10;314(5801):929.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Musante L, Tataruch D, Gu D, Benito-Martin A, Calzaferri G, Aherne S, et al. A simplified method to recover urinary vesicles for clinical applications, and sample banking. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 23;4:7532.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones RB. 20% Chance of Rain. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Wolff KD. Raising of Microvascular Flaps: A Systematic Approach. Hölzle F, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. XI, 180 p. 294 illus., 147 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Herranz J, Laguillaumie F, Libert B, Ràfols C. Short Attribute-Based Signatures for Threshold Predicates. In: Dunkelman O, editor. Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2012: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 27 – March 2, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 51–67. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Basic and Applied Pathology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Future Of Groundbreaking Mission To Deflect An Asteroid Uncertain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Regulatory Flexibility in Schools: What Happens When Schools Are Allowed to Change the Rules? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Apr. Report No.: HEHS-94-102.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kingston SE. Genome-wide analysis of divergence and introgression in towhee hybrid zones [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Agree to Hear Case Challenging Voter ID Laws. New York Times. 2007 Sep 26;A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBasic and Applied Pathology
AbbreviationBasic Appl. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1755-9294
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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