How to format your references using the Basic and Applied Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Basic and Applied Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spencer JR. Planetary science. Glimpsing eruptions on Europa. Science. 2014 Jan 10;343(6167):148–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smaglik P, Smith A. Biotech jobs are still around despite the recent bumpy ride. Nature. 2002 Jul 4;418(6893):4–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rybczynski N, Dawson MR, Tedford RH. A semi-aquatic Arctic mammalian carnivore from the Miocene epoch and origin of Pinnipedia. Nature. 2009 Apr 23;458(7241):1021–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Han J-H, Kushner SA, Yiu AP, Hsiang H-LL, Buch T, Waisman A, et al. Selective erasure of a fear memory. Science. 2009 Mar 13;323(5920):1492–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sato T, Kammen DM, Duan B, Macuha M, Zhou Z, Wu J, et al. Smart Grid Standards. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Foresti S, editor. Security and Trust Management: 11th International Workshop, STM 2015, Vienna, Austria, September 21-22, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. X, 293 p. 68 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9331).
A chapter in an edited book
Bennett JE. Diagnostic Histopathology. In: Hospenthal DR, Rinaldi MG, editors. Diagnosis and Treatment of Fungal Infections. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 37–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Basic and Applied Pathology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Low Testosterone May Make You A Better Father. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Actions Needed to Address Weaknesses in Information Security and Privacy Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Sep. Report No.: GAO-14-730.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hantgan A. Aspects of Bangime Phonology, Morphology, and Morphosyntax [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets in the Tournament Get Acquainted With Their Family Roots. New York Times. 2017 Mar 13;D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBasic and Applied Pathology
AbbreviationBasic Appl. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1755-9294
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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