How to format your references using the Basic and Applied Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Basic and Applied Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Barral Y. Cell biology. Septins at the nexus. Science. 2010 Sep 10;329(5997):1289–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Fox K, Caterson B. Neuroscience. Freeing the bain from the perineuronal net. Science. 2002 Nov 8;298(5596):1187–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Xie XS, Yu J, Yang WY. Living cells as test tubes. Science. 2006 Apr 14;312(5771):228–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
St Maurice M, Reinhardt L, Surinya KH, Attwood PV, Wallace JC, Cleland WW, et al. Domain architecture of pyruvate carboxylase, a biotin-dependent multifunctional enzyme. Science. 2007 Aug 24;317(5841):1076–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Nikrityuk PA. Computational Thermo-Fluid Dynamics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Badioze Zaman H, Robinson P, Petrou M, Olivier P, Shih TK, Velastin S, et al., editors. Visual Informatics: Sustaining Research and Innovations: Second International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2011, Selangor, Malaysia, November 9-11, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XX, 371 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7066).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Ide N, Pustejovsky J, Cieri C, Nyberg E, DiPersio D, Shi C, et al. The Language Application Grid. In: Murakami Y, Lin D, editors. Worldwide Language Service Infrastructure: Second International Workshop, WLSI 2015, Kyoto, Japan, January 22-23, 2015 Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 51–70. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Basic and Applied Pathology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Scientists Find Stone Tools That Predate Humanity [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/scientists-find-worlds-oldest-stone-tools/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: DOT and Justice Oversight of Eastern Air Lines’ Bankruptcy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Feb. Report No.: RCED-90-79.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Meza J. A community outreach program for Latino immigrant families: Increasing service utilization [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Winerip M, Schwirtz M, Robbins T. New York State Taking on Union of Prison Guards. New York Times. 2016 Apr 11;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBasic and Applied Pathology
AbbreviationBasic Appl. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1755-9294
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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