How to format your references using the Basic and Applied Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Basic and Applied Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone R. U.S.-RUSSIA TIES: Spy Conviction Strains Science Collaborations. Science. 2000 Dec 15;290(5499):2043–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Albuschies J, Vogel V. The role of filopodia in the recognition of nanotopographies. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1658.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coulson T, Lindström J, Cotgreave P. Ecology. Seeking new recruits. Science. 2002 Mar 15;295(5562):2023–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sang L, Hu J, Zou R, Koide Y, Liao M. Arbitrary multicolor photodetection by hetero-integrated semiconductor nanostructures. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic S. Advanced Wireless Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Krey U. Basic Theoretical Physics: A Concise Overview. Owen A, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. XVI, 452 p. 31 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
García-Rey E. Refixation of Detached Fragments. In: Rodrìguez-Merchán EC, editor. Articular Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Diagnosis and Treatment. Milano: Springer; 2012. p. 37–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Basic and Applied Pathology.

Blog post
Hale T. Gorgeous Photo Of A Rare “Ghost Rainbow” Snapped In Scotland [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Improved Planning and Acquisition Strategies Can Help Address Operational Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Apr. Report No.: GAO-06-610T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan J. Two Essays on Asset Pricing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker L. 2 Families, and No Room for Guilt. New York Times. 2009 Jun 19;C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBasic and Applied Pathology
AbbreviationBasic Appl. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1755-9294
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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