How to format your references using the Frontiers in Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schwartz, M. A. (2009). Cell biology. The force is with us. Science 323, 588–589.
A journal article with 2 authors
Subang, M. C., and Richardson, P. M. (2009). Neuroscience. Nuclear power for axonal growth. Science 326, 238–239.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rebbeck, C. A., Leroi, A. M., and Burt, A. (2011). Mitochondrial capture by a transmissible cancer. Science 331, 303.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chao, H.-T., Chen, H., Samaco, R. C., Xue, M., Chahrour, M., Yoo, J., et al. (2010). Dysfunction in GABA signalling mediates autism-like stereotypies and Rett syndrome phenotypes. Nature 468, 263–269.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson Jr. MD, W. H., and Moller MD, J. H. (2014). Pediatric Cardiology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pfister, H. (2015). Inertia and Gravitation: The Fundamental Nature and Structure of Space-Time. , ed. M. King Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sehba, F. A., and Friedrich, V. (2015). “Early Events After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage,” in Neurovascular Events After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Towards Experimental and Clinical Standardisation, eds. J. Fandino, S. Marbacher, A.-R. Fathi, C. Muroi, and E. Keller (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 23–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Materials.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). England To Offer Gay Men HPV Vaccine For First Time. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). FAA Staffing: Improvements Needed in Estimating Air Traffic Controller Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham, O. B. (2017). The Chiron Complex: From Spiritual Bypassing to Individuation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES (2017). Early Spring Flowers. New York Times, RE10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schwartz, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Schwartz, 2009; Subang and Richardson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Subang and Richardson, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Chao et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Materials
AbbreviationFront. Mater.
ISSN (online)2296-8016

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