How to format your references using the Frontiers in Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hammond, W. C. (2005). Geophysics. The ghost of an earthquake. Science 310, 1440–1442.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bengtson, S., and Rasmussen, B. (2009). Paleontology. New and ancient trace makers. Science 323, 346–347.
A journal article with 3 authors
McKemy, D. D., Neuhausser, W. M., and Julius, D. (2002). Identification of a cold receptor reveals a general role for TRP channels in thermosensation. Nature 416, 52–58.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cui, H., Cruz-Correa, M., Giardiello, F. M., Hutcheon, D. F., Kafonek, D. R., Brandenburg, S., et al. (2003). Loss of IGF2 imprinting: a potential marker of colorectal cancer risk. Science 299, 1753–1755.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dasgupta, A. (2012). Resolving Erroneous Reports in Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rau, P. L. P. ed. (2014). Cross-Cultural Design: 6th International Conference, CCD 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wasserman, T., and Wasserman, L. D. (2016). “The Effect of Learning on the Development of the Connectome,” in Depathologizing Psychopathology: The Neuroscience of Mental Illness and Its Treatment, ed. L. D. Wasserman (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Materials.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Environmental Factors Experienced By A Man Could Impact His Grandchildren. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998). Environmental Protection: EPA’s Science and Technology Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, T. F. (2017). The Aircraft Electric Taxi System: A Qualitative Multi Case Study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2016). The Newest Superpower: Passing Through Network Walls. New York Times, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hammond, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Bengtson and Rasmussen, 2009; Hammond, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bengtson and Rasmussen, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Cui et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Materials
AbbreviationFront. Mater.
ISSN (online)2296-8016

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