How to format your references using the Frontiers in Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Funder, J. W. (2011). Medicine. The genetics of primary aldosteronism. Science 331, 685–686.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freidin, E., and Kacelnik, A. (2011). Rational choice, context dependence, and the value of information in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Science 334, 1000–1002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nir, E., Kleinermanns, K., and de Vries, M. S. (2000). Pairing of isolated nucleic-acid bases in the absence of the DNA backbone. Nature 408, 949–951.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Herzig, S., Hedrick, S., Morantte, I., Koo, S.-H., Galimi, F., and Montminy, M. (2003). CREB controls hepatic lipid metabolism through nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-gamma. Nature 426, 190–193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sauter, M. (2014). From GSM to LTE-Advanced. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Small, W., and Woloschak, G. E. eds. (2006). Radiation Toxicity: A Practical Guide. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Silva, M. F., Tenreiro Machado, J. A., and Lopes, A. M. (2005). “Integer vs. Fractional Order Control of a Hexapod Robot,” in Climbing and Walking Robots: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference CLAWAR 2004, ed. P. de González Santos (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 73–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Materials.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016). Do Mobile Phones Give You Brain Cancer? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). [Comments on Applicability of Vacancies Act to Various Labor and Education Officers]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bakirci, A. (2010). Proteomic analysis of hepatocyte proteins in response to in vivo iron overload.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017). Next Act for an Editor Silver of Tongue (and Hair). New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Funder, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Freidin and Kacelnik, 2011; Funder, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freidin and Kacelnik, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Herzig et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Materials
AbbreviationFront. Mater.
ISSN (online)2296-8016

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