How to format your references using the Frontiers in Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huarte, M. (2009). Journal club. A biologist looks at new functions for non-coding RNAs. Nature 459, 487.
A journal article with 2 authors
Broccoli, A. J., and Klein, S. A. (2010). Comment on “Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback.” Science 329, 277; author reply 277.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paradise, J., Andrews, L., and Holbrook, T. (2005). Intellectual property. Patents on human genes: an analysis of scope and claims. Science 307, 1566–1567.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bernhard, J. M., Buck, K. R., Farmer, M. A., and Bowser, S. S. (2000). The Santa Barbara Basin is a symbiosis oasis. Nature 403, 77–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holloway, M., and Nwaoha, C. (2012). Dictionary of Industrial Terms. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cooper, R., Madden, G., Lloyd, A., and Schipp, M. eds. (2006). The Economics of Online Markets and ICT Networks. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.
A chapter in an edited book
Papadimitriou, P. (2011). “Fiscal Rules in the EU: Time to Rethink and Start from the Basics,” in The Konstantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy Yearbook 2011: The Global Economic Crisis and the Case of Greece The Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy Yearbook Series., eds. K. E. Botsiou and A. Klapsis (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 29–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Materials.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017). What Happens To Your Gut If You Eat A Gold Pizza? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). B-2 Bomber: Initial Flight Tests. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Truong, T. (2012). Microfluidics-based system for high-throughput analysis of nitrite in harbor water.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman, J. (2017). Online platforms annexed much of our public sphere, playacting as little democracies — until extremists made them reveal their true nature. New York Times, MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huarte, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Huarte, 2009; Broccoli and Klein, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Broccoli and Klein, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Bernhard et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Materials
AbbreviationFront. Mater.
ISSN (online)2296-8016

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