How to format your references using the Research in Science Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Science Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weir, K. (2015). Microbiology: Inflammatory evidence. Nature, 528(7582), S130-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Touma, J. R., & Sridhar, S. (2015). The disruption of multiplanet systems through resonance with a binary orbit. Nature, 524(7566), 439–441.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stern, M., Umansky, V., & Bar-Joseph, I. (2014). Exciton liquid in coupled quantum wells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6166), 55–57.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Follows, M. J., Dutkiewicz, S., Grant, S., & Chisholm, S. W. (2007). Emergent biogeography of microbial communities in a model ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5820), 1843–1846.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neff, D. J., & Moss, R. C. (2011). The Future of Nonprofits. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Halgamuge, S. K., & Wang, L. (Eds.). (2005). Classification and Clustering for Knowledge Discovery (Vol. 4). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Balent, M. (2011). European Public Opinion and the Crisis: which impact on the European Union? In T. Chopin & M. Foucher (Eds.), Schuman Report on Europe: State of the Union 2011 (pp. 39–43). Paris: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Science Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 19). Microorganisms From Earth Could Survive On Mars. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Electronic Government: Planned e-Authentication Gateway Faces Formidable Development Challenges (No. GAO-03-952). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilkerson, K. (2010). A comprehensive educational program for male and female teen parents: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M. (2015, January 18). Feast of Championships. New York Times, p. LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weir 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Touma and Sridhar 2015; Weir 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Touma and Sridhar 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Follows et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Science Education
AbbreviationRes. Sci. Educ.
ISSN (print)0157-244X
ISSN (online)1573-1898

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