How to format your references using the Geotextiles and Geomembranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotextiles and Geomembranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Falkowski, P.G., 2006. Evolution. Tracing oxygen’s imprint on earth’s metabolic evolution. Science 311, 1724–1725.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guerrero, I., Ruiz i Altaba, A., 2003. Development. Longing for ligand: hedgehog, patched, and cell death. Science 301, 774–776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lemieux, C., Otis, C., Turmel, M., 2000. Ancestral chloroplast genome in Mesostigma viride reveals an early branch of green plant evolution. Nature 403, 649–652.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Torres-Padilla, M.-E., Parfitt, D.-E., Kouzarides, T., Zernicka-Goetz, M., 2007. Histone arginine methylation regulates pluripotency in the early mouse embryo. Nature 445, 214–218.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sauter, M., 2013. 3G, 4G and Beyond-Bringing Networks, Devices and the Web Together. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ramon, J., Denis, L.J. (Eds.), 2007. Prostate Cancer, Recent Results in Cancer Research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Grigori, L., Jacquelin, M., Khabou, A., 2014. Performance Predictions of Multilevel Communication Optimal LU and QR Factorizations on Hierarchical Platforms, in: Kunkel, J.M., Ludwig, T., Meuer, H.W. (Eds.), Supercomputing: 29th International Conference, ISC 2014, Leipzig, Germany, June 22-26, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 76–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotextiles and Geomembranes.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. A Bizarre Five-Star System has Been Found that Doesn’t Look Like Anything We’ve Seen Before [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Highway Public-Private Partnerships: More Rigorous Up-Front Analysis Could Better Secure Potential Benefits and Protect the Public Interest (No. GAO-08-1149R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lyngarkos, B., 2015. Examination of the relative importance of website elements for users of manufacturers representative websites (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 1999. Rutgers Women Find Rhythm For 4th Straight Victory. New York Times D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Falkowski, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Falkowski, 2006; Guerrero and Ruiz i Altaba, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guerrero and Ruiz i Altaba, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Torres-Padilla et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotextiles and Geomembranes
AbbreviationGeotextiles Geomembranes
ISSN (print)0266-1144
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Materials Science

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