How to format your references using the Geotextiles and Geomembranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotextiles and Geomembranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sakurai, M., 2011. Perspective: Herbal dangers. Nature 480, S97.
A journal article with 2 authors
May, M., Brody, H., 2015. Nature index 2015 Asia-Pacific. Nature 519, S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Klaholz, B.P., Myasnikov, A.G., Van Heel, M., 2004. Visualization of release factor 3 on the ribosome during termination of protein synthesis. Nature 427, 862–865.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sekine, T., Kakuta, T., Nakamura, T., Kobayashi, Y., Takashima, Y., Harada, A., 2014. A macroscopic reaction: direct covalent bond formation between materials using a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Sci. Rep. 4, 6348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pagliaro, L.A., Pagliaro, A.M., 2011. Handbook of Child and Adolescent Drug and Substance Abuse. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ozok, A.A., Zaphiris, P. (Eds.), 2011. Online Communities and Social Computing: 4th International Conference, OCSC 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Saif, M.W., Kim, R., Chu, E., 2007. Cytotoxic Chemotherapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer, in: Markman, M., Saltz, L.B. (Eds.), Colorectal Cancer: Evidence-Based Chemotherapy Strategies, Current Clinical Oncology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotextiles and Geomembranes.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Journal Accepts Paper Reading “Get Me Off Your Fucking Mailing List” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Title 6--NAD Electronic Signature (No. AIMD-94-102R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grijalva, J.A., 2010. Exploring cultural finance: A phenomenological approach to comparative cultural perceptions of money in Mexico (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Martin, V., 2014. Pitfalls of Privilege. New York Times BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sakurai, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (May and Brody, 2015; Sakurai, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (May and Brody, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Sekine et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotextiles and Geomembranes
AbbreviationGeotextiles Geomembranes
ISSN (print)0266-1144
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Materials Science

Other styles