How to format your references using the Geotextiles and Geomembranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotextiles and Geomembranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A., 2001. Hopes of biotech interest spur Latvian population genetics. Nature 412, 468.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nadeau, R.M., Guilhem, A., 2009. Nonvolcanic tremor evolution and the San Simeon and Parkfield, California, earthquakes. Science 325, 191–193.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson, D.P., Das, S., Watts, A.B., 2006. Earthquake rupture stalled by a subducting fracture zone. Science 312, 1203–1205.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schiemann, B., Gommerman, J.L., Vora, K., Cachero, T.G., Shulga-Morskaya, S., Dobles, M., Frew, E., Scott, M.L., 2001. An essential role for BAFF in the normal development of B cells through a BCMA-independent pathway. Science 293, 2111–2114.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins, D., 2013. Reading Paradise Lost. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Grobman, S., 2016. The Second Economy: The Race for Trust, Treasure and Time in the Cybersecurity War. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Hundt, R., 2013. From Carbon to Clean—How to Attract Investment in Smart Grid Infrastructures, in: Noam, E.M., Pupillo, L.M., Kranz, J.J. (Eds.), Broadband Networks, Smart Grids and Climate Change. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 39–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotextiles and Geomembranes.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Comprehensive Review Of Statins Finds The Benefits Far Outweigh The Risks [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Reimbursement of Depreciation and Interest Costs for Construction of Satellite Hospital (No. B-164031(3).150). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garyan, D., 2017. Converging origins: Never forget what happened in the future (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W., 2015. Brutal Past and Promising Future Clash in Colombian City. New York Times A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2001; Nadeau and Guilhem, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nadeau and Guilhem, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Schiemann et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotextiles and Geomembranes
AbbreviationGeotextiles Geomembranes
ISSN (print)0266-1144
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Materials Science

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