How to format your references using the Geotextiles and Geomembranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotextiles and Geomembranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McArdle, J., 2000. Animal Welfare Act’s Changes Deserve Praise, Not Panic. Science 290, 1299c–300c.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilks, J., Golovkina, T., 2015. Immunology. Interfering with interferons. Science 347, 233–234.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimmerman, A., Bai, L., Ginty, D.D., 2014. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin. Science 346, 950–954.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, A.S., Estecio, M.R.H., Garcia-Manero, G., Kantarjian, H.M., Issa, J.-P.J., 2003. Comment on “Chromosomal instability and tumors promoted by DNA hypomethylation” and “Induction of tumors in nice by genomic hypomethylation.” Science 302, 1153; author reply 1153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Todinov, M., 2015. Reliability and Risk Models. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Druzhinina, I.S., Kubicek, C.P. (Eds.), 2016. Environmental and Microbial Relationships, 3rd ed. 2016. ed, The Mycota, A Comprehensive Treatise on Fungi as Experimental Systems for Basic and Applied Research. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Postorino, V., Mazzone, L., 2016. Feeding and Eating Disorders and Autism Spectrum Disorder, in: Mazzone, L., Vitiello, B. (Eds.), Psychiatric Symptoms and Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 67–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotextiles and Geomembranes.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Ultrafast Camera Caught Light Doing A “Sonic Boom” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Federal Research: Interim Report on the Small Business Innovation Research Program (No. RCED-95-59). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nattress, D.A., 2013. Benefits of single-gender education: Perceptions of middle grade teachers (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fitzsimmons, E.G., Buettner, R., 2015. Rail Crossing Accidents Decline Nationwide, but Less So in New York Region. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McArdle, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (McArdle, 2000; Wilks and Golovkina, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilks and Golovkina, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotextiles and Geomembranes
AbbreviationGeotextiles Geomembranes
ISSN (print)0266-1144
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Materials Science

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