How to format your references using the Geotextiles and Geomembranes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geotextiles and Geomembranes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crabtree, R.H., 2007. Chemistry. No protection required. Science 318, 756–757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Filippov, A., Gorb, S.N., 2013. Frictional-anisotropy-based systems in biology: structural diversity and numerical model. Sci. Rep. 3, 1240.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rogers Hollingsworth, J., Müller, K.H., Hollingsworth, E.J., 2008. China: The end of the science superpowers. Nature 454, 412–413.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
She, X., Jiang, Z., Clark, R.A., Liu, G., Cheng, Z., Tuzun, E., Church, D.M., Sutton, G., Halpern, A.L., Eichler, E.E., 2004. Shotgun sequence assembly and recent segmental duplications within the human genome. Nature 431, 927–930.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Trimble, M.R., George, M.S., 2010. Biological Psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Cook, R.T. (Ed.), 2007. The Arché Papers on the Mathematics of Abstraction, The Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Tachikawa, M., Hosoya, K.-I., Ohtsuki, S., Terasaki, T., 2007. A Novel Relationship Between Creatine Transport at the Blood-Brain and Blood-Retinal Barriers, Creatine Biosynthesis, And its Use for Brain and Retinal Energy Homeostasis, in: Salomons, G.S., Wyss, M. (Eds.), Creatine and Creatine Kinase in Health and Disease, Subcellular Biochemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 83–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geotextiles and Geomembranes.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. Watch A Tapir Scratch An Itch With His Enormous, Prehensile Penis [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Computer Buys: Air Force Logistics Modernization Program Should Comply With Brooks Act (No. IMTEC-86-16). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aggarwal, E., 2012. South Asian women’s attitudes toward help-seeking behaviors (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. Milestone for BMI: More Than $1 Billion in Music Royalties. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crabtree, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Crabtree, 2007; Filippov and Gorb, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Filippov and Gorb, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (She et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeotextiles and Geomembranes
AbbreviationGeotextiles Geomembranes
ISSN (print)0266-1144
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
General Materials Science

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