How to format your references using the Frontiers in Marine Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Marine Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaherty, J. B. (2001). Seismic evidence for hotspot-induced buoyant flow beneath the Reykjanes Ridge. Science 293, 1645–1647.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shizuka, D., and Lyon, B. E. (2010). Coots use hatch order to learn to recognize and reject conspecific brood parasitic chicks. Nature 463, 223–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Geisler, J. H., Colbert, M. W., and Carew, J. L. (2014). A new fossil species supports an early origin for toothed whale echolocation. Nature 508, 383–386.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Steppan, C. M., Bailey, S. T., Bhat, S., Brown, E. J., Banerjee, R. R., Wright, C. M., et al. (2001). The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes. Nature 409, 307–312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paret, D. (2012). Flexray and its Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gibbons, M. C., Bali, R., and Wickramasinghe, N. eds. (2010). Perspectives of Knowledge Management in Urban Health. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sulc, M., and Matas, J. (2015). “Fast Features Invariant to Rotation and Scale of Texture,” in Computer Vision - ECCV 2014 Workshops: Zurich, Switzerland, September 6-7 and 12, 2014, Proceedings, Part II Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. L. Agapito, M. M. Bronstein, and C. Rother (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Marine Science.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Elon Musk Is About To Test The “Trickiest” Part Of His Mars Spaceship — A Giant, Potentially Explosive Black Orb. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006). Suggested Areas for Oversight for the 110th Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nixon, H. A. (2015). Defining Principals: The Seen and the Unseen. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards Five and Six.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dargis, M. (2017). Amy Adams. New York Times, M2169.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gaherty, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gaherty, 2001; Shizuka and Lyon, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shizuka and Lyon, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Steppan et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Marine Science
AbbreviationFront. Mar. Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-7745
ScopeAquatic Science
Ocean Engineering
Global and Planetary Change
Water Science and Technology

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