How to format your references using the Frontiers in Marine Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Marine Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weissman, P. (2015). Planetary science: Sink holes and dust jets on comet 67P. Nature 523, 42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferrara, N., and Kerbel, R. S. (2005). Angiogenesis as a therapeutic target. Nature 438, 967–974.
A journal article with 3 authors
Catalli, K., Shim, S.-H., and Prakapenka, V. (2009). Thickness and Clapeyron slope of the post-perovskite boundary. Nature 462, 782–785.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang, Z., Xu, N., Chen, D. T. N., Yunker, P., Alsayed, A. M., Aptowicz, K. B., et al. (2009). Thermal vestige of the zero-temperature jamming transition. Nature 459, 230–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fortey, R. A., and Bruton, D. L. (2013). Lower Ordovician Trilobites of the Kirtonryggen Formation, Spitsbergen. Norway: The Lethaia Foundation.
An edited book
Xu, J. (2014). Innovative Approaches Towards Low Carbon Economics: Regional Development Cybernetics. , eds. L. Yao and Y. Lu Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Eschmeier, J. (2014). “On the Maximal Ideal Space of a Sarason-Type Algebra on the Unit Ball,” in The Corona Problem: Connections Between Operator Theory, Function Theory, and Geometry Fields Institute Communications., eds. R. G. Douglas, S. G. Krantz, E. T. Sawyer, S. Treil, and B. D. Wick (New York, NY: Springer), 69–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Marine Science.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Ridiculously Handsome Sand Cat Spotted In Wild For First Time In 10 Years. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). FAA Staffing: New Pay Act Offers Options to Bolster Maintenance Work Force. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, V. M. (2013). In vitro thyroid hormone metabolism: Effects of nuclear receptor activation on the metabolic profiles of thyroxine in rat and human hepatocytes.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016). ‘Friday File’: The Whitney’s 1966 Debut (Now the Met Breuer). New York Times, C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weissman, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ferrara and Kerbel, 2005; Weissman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ferrara and Kerbel, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Marine Science
AbbreviationFront. Mar. Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-7745
ScopeAquatic Science
Ocean Engineering
Global and Planetary Change
Water Science and Technology

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