How to format your references using the Frontiers in Marine Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Marine Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Travers, A. (2014). Structural biology. The 30-nm fiber redux. Science 344, 370–372.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rabosky, D. L., and Sorhannus, U. (2009). Diversity dynamics of marine planktonic diatoms across the Cenozoic. Nature 457, 183–186.
A journal article with 3 authors
Warner, D. A., Uller, T., and Shine, R. (2013). Transgenerational sex determination: the embryonic environment experienced by a male affects offspring sex ratio. Sci. Rep. 3, 2709.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Elden, A. C., Kim, H.-J., Hart, M. P., Chen-Plotkin, A. S., Johnson, B. S., Fang, X., et al. (2010). Ataxin-2 intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions are associated with increased risk for ALS. Nature 466, 1069–1075.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott, D. M. (2009). World Wide Rave. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tran, L.-S. P., and Pal, S. eds. (2014). Phytohormones: A Window to Metabolism, Signaling and Biotechnological Applications. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
vanVliet, P. C. J., and Hendrix, P. F. (2004). “Role of Fauna in Soil Physical Processes,” in Soil Biological Fertility: A Key to Sustainable Land Use in Agriculture, eds. L. K. Abbott and D. V. Murphy (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 61–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Marine Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). First Ebola Case Diagnosed in the U.S. Confirmed. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Transportation Security: TSA Has Made Progress in Implementing the Transportation Worker Identification Credential Program, but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho, L. (2012). Determination of Ibuprofen Isotherm Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014). Skating’s New Scoring System Adds to Challenge for American Men. New York Times, SP11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Travers, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Rabosky and Sorhannus, 2009; Travers, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rabosky and Sorhannus, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Elden et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Marine Science
AbbreviationFront. Mar. Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-7745
ScopeAquatic Science
Ocean Engineering
Global and Planetary Change
Water Science and Technology

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