How to format your references using the Frontiers in Marine Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Marine Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lowe, J. B. (2005). Cell biology. Does Notch take the sweet road to success? Science 307, 1570–1572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirey, P. D., and Lamberti, G. A. (2011). Regulate trade in rare plants. Nature 469, 465–467.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bazzini, A. A., Lee, M. T., and Giraldez, A. J. (2012). Ribosome profiling shows that miR-430 reduces translation before causing mRNA decay in zebrafish. Science 336, 233–237.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ferrant, S., Caballero, Y., Perrin, J., Gascoin, S., Dewandel, B., Aulong, S., et al. (2014). Projected impacts of climate change on farmers’ extraction of groundwater from crystalline aquifers in South India. Sci. Rep. 4, 3697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tanwir, S., and Perros, H. (2014). VBR Video Traffic Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Martí-Oliet, N., Ölveczky, P. C., and Talcott, C. eds. (2015). Logic, Rewriting, and Concurrency: Essays Dedicated to José Meseguer on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Srodon, P., and Lumley, J. (2009). “Carotid Body Tumor,” in Vascular Surgery, eds. J. S. P. Lumley and J. J. Hoballah (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 45–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Marine Science.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Globally Important Iraqi Marshes Designated As A World Heritage Site. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998). Food Assistance: Child Care Centers Sponsored by Schools Participating in the National School Lunch Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trahan, M. W. (2015). Large-scale 20th Century Warming Identified in the East Siberian Arctic Using Tree-ring Carbon Isotope Records.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2000). August 13-19; Czar Beatified. New York Times, 42.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lowe, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Lowe, 2005; Shirey and Lamberti, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shirey and Lamberti, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ferrant et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Marine Science
AbbreviationFront. Mar. Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-7745
ScopeAquatic Science
Ocean Engineering
Global and Planetary Change
Water Science and Technology

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