How to format your references using the International Journal of Material Forming citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Material Forming. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Westervelt RM (2008) Applied physics. Graphene nanoelectronics. Science 320:324–325
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharp MD, Pogliano K (2002) Role of cell-specific SpoIIIE assembly in polarity of DNA transfer. Science 295:137–139
A journal article with 3 authors
Skourti-Stathaki K, Kamieniarz-Gdula K, Proudfoot NJ (2014) R-loops induce repressive chromatin marks over mammalian gene terminators. Nature 516:436–439
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kosynkin DV, Higginbotham AL, Sinitskii A, et al (2009) Longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes to form graphene nanoribbons. Nature 458:872–876

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morrison TJ (2000) Functional Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Wang L (2014) Advances in Transport Phenomena 2011. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
O’Donoghue T, Harford J (2016) Secondary School Education in Other Catholic Boys’ Secondary Schools in Ireland, 1922–1962. In: Harford J (ed) Secondary School Education in Ireland: History, Memories and Life Stories, 1922–1967. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 87–119

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Material Forming.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) First Child Born To Woman Who Had Ovary Tissue Removed And Frozen During Childhood. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Air Traffic Control: System Management Capabilities Improved, but More Can Be Done to Institutionalize Improvements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boysen J (2008) The ESCRT machinery, required for endosomal trafficking, is a pH-signaling platform. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M (2017) The Flea Makes a Big Move in TriBeCa. New York Times C8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Material Forming
AbbreviationInt. J. Mater. Form.
ISSN (print)1960-6206
ISSN (online)1960-6214
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

Other styles