How to format your references using the International Journal of Material Forming citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Material Forming. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young KD (2014) Microbiology. A flipping cell wall ferry. Science 345:139–140
A journal article with 2 authors
Sahin E, Depinho RA (2010) Linking functional decline of telomeres, mitochondria and stem cells during ageing. Nature 464:520–528
A journal article with 3 authors
Koenderink AF, Alù A, Polman A (2015) Nanophotonics: shrinking light-based technology. Science 348:516–521
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Peng J, Cao D, He Z, et al (2018) Publisher Correction: The effect of hydration number on the interfacial transport of sodium ions. Nature 563:E18

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cortada JW (2014) The Essential Manager. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Younos T, Grady CA (2014) Potable Water: Emerging Global Problems and Solutions. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Schaeffler R (2010) Bezeugte religiöse Erfahrung, philosophische Theorie und ihre Vermittlung durch die Postulate der Vernunft. In: Fløistad G (ed) Philosophy of Religion. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 89–106

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Material Forming.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Paris Makes All Public Transport Free In A Bid To Tackle The Worst Smog Seen In 10 Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Highlights of a Forum: Transforming Transportation Policy for the 21st Century. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Penney G (2010) Executive Fire Officers’ strategic thinking capabilities and their relationship with information and communication technology. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Waldstein D (2016) Cleveland’s Renaissance Reaches the World Series. New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Material Forming
AbbreviationInt. J. Mater. Form.
ISSN (print)1960-6206
ISSN (online)1960-6214
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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