How to format your references using the Computers and Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marangos, J., 2000. Faster than a speeding photon. Nature 406, 243–244.
A journal article with 2 authors
Atkins, J.F., Gesteland, R., 2002. Biochemistry. The 22nd amino acid. Science 296, 1409–1410.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schoemaker, H.E., Mink, D., Wubbolts, M.G., 2003. Dispelling the myths--biocatalysis in industrial synthesis. Science 299, 1694–1697.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Canli, T., Sivers, H., Whitfield, S.L., Gotlib, I.H., Gabrieli, J.D.E., 2002. Amygdala response to happy faces as a function of extraversion. Science 296, 2191.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bma, 2013. Everyday Medical Ethics and Law. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Pallotta, V., Soro, A., Vargiu, E. (Eds.), 2011. Advances in Distributed Agent-Based Retrieval Tools, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Syed, K., Zavarsky, P., Lindskog, D., Ruhl, R., Aghili, S., 2012. Proposed Control Procedure to Mitigate the Risks of Strategic Information Outflow in the Recruitment Process, in: Fischer-Hübner, S., Katsikas, S., Quirchmayr, G. (Eds.), Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business: 9th International Conference, TrustBus 2012, Vienna, Austria, September 3-7, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 50–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Geosciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. There’s A Place On Earth That Experiences 1.2 Million Lighting Strikes A Year [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Freight Railroad Safety: Results of Rail Industry Survey about Hours of Service Issues (GAO-11-894SP, September 2011), an E-supplement to GAO-11-853 (No. GAO-11-894SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cummins, K., 2015. A Mixed Methods Study on The Leader in Me Process: How Does Fostering Student Leadership Capacity Influence Behavior, Efficacy, and Achievement? (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2016. Why a Merger of Media Firms That Should Be a Sure Bet Isn’t. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marangos, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Atkins and Gesteland, 2002; Marangos, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Atkins and Gesteland, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Canli et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Geosciences
AbbreviationComput. Geosci.
ISSN (print)0098-3004
ScopeInformation Systems
Computers in Earth Sciences

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