How to format your references using the Computers and Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder, N., 2000. UK panel calls for more cuts to carbon dioxide emission. Nature 405, 873–874.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gershenwald, J.E., Fidler, I.J., 2002. Cancer. Targeting lymphatic metastasis. Science 296, 1811–1812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gleiche, M., Chi, L.F., Fuchs, H., 2000. Nanoscopic channel lattices with controlled anisotropic wetting. Nature 403, 173–175.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mizuno, Y., Hayashi, N., Tanaka, H., Nakamura, K., Todoroki, S.-I., 2014. Propagation mechanism of polymer optical fiber fuse. Sci. Rep. 4, 4800.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ng, R., 2005. Drugs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ahmed, W., 2014. Chemical Vapour Deposition of Diamond for Dental Tools and Burs, SpringerBriefs in Materials. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Nieman, L.K., 2011. The Diagnosis of Cushing’s Syndrome, in: Swearingen, B., Biller, B.M.K. (Eds.), Cushing’s Disease, Endocrine Updates. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Geosciences.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. What’s The Deadliest Plant On Earth? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. James Webb Space Telescope: Project Facing Increased Schedule Risk with Significant Work Remaining (No. GAO-15-100). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Francom, C., 2012. Análisis sociolingüístico de eleccion de lengua en encuentros de servicio: Una perspectiva etnográfica y experimental (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M., 2017. 3 Lawsuits Filed Against White House Panel on Voter Fraud. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Loder, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gershenwald and Fidler, 2002; Loder, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gershenwald and Fidler, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mizuno et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Geosciences
AbbreviationComput. Geosci.
ISSN (print)0098-3004
ScopeInformation Systems
Computers in Earth Sciences

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