How to format your references using the Computers and Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2004. Ghosts in the machine. Nature 427, 867.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ammerman, A.J., McClennen, C.E., 2000. URBAN ECOLOGY: Saving Venice. Science 289, 1301–1302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pendry, J.B., Martín-Moreno, L., Garcia-Vidal, F.J., 2004. Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces. Science 305, 847–848.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Coltman, D.W., O’Donoghue, P., Jorgenson, J.T., Hogg, J.T., Strobeck, C., Festa-Bianchet, M., 2003. Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting. Nature 426, 655–658.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Praetorius, S., Schößer, B., 2016. Bentonithandbuch. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Talbi, E.-G., Liardet, P., Collet, P., Lutton, E., Schoenauer, M. (Eds.), 2006. Artificial Evolution: 7th International Conference, Evolution Artificielle, EA 2005, Lille, France, October 26-28, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ryabov, V.V., Shevko, A.Y., Gora, M.P., 2014. Basalt Magma Differentiation as a Source of Variety in Traps, in: Shevko, A.Y., Gora, M.P. (Eds.), Trap Magmatism and Ore Formation in the Siberian Noril’sk Region: Volume 1. Trap Petrology, Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 275–328.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Geosciences.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. The Quest For The World’s Hottest Chilli [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Educating Deaf Students at Federally Assisted Postsecondary Schools (No. 129130). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimpeno, P.D., 2010. Consumed: Simple Choices, Complex Problems (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2017. Grammy Awards Gain a Million More Viewers. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Ammerman and McClennen, 2000; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ammerman and McClennen, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Coltman et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Geosciences
AbbreviationComput. Geosci.
ISSN (print)0098-3004
ScopeInformation Systems
Computers in Earth Sciences

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