How to format your references using the Computers and Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles, J., 2003. Nanotechnology: what is there to fear from something so small? Nature 426, 750.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, J., Novick, R.P., 2009. Phage-mediated intergeneric transfer of toxin genes. Science 323, 139–141.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tatano, Y., Shimizu, T., Tomioka, H., 2014. Unique macrophages different from M1/M2 macrophages inhibit T cell mitogenesis while upregulating Th17 polarization. Sci. Rep. 4, 4146.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Diskin, R., Scheid, J.F., Marcovecchio, P.M., West, A.P., Jr, Klein, F., Gao, H., Gnanapragasam, P.N.P., Abadir, A., Seaman, M.S., Nussenzweig, M.C., Bjorkman, P.J., 2011. Increasing the potency and breadth of an HIV antibody by using structure-based rational design. Science 334, 1289–1293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cleaver, H., Cawson, P., Gorin, S., Walker, S., 2009. Safeguarding Children. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Calmet, J., Geiselmann, W., Müller-Quade, J. (Eds.), 2008. Mathematical Methods in Computer Science: Essays in Memory of Thomas Beth, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Abedi, S., Arvani, A., Jamalzadeh, R., 2015. Cyber Security of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids: Application of Intrusion Detection Methods, in: Rajakaruna, S., Shahnia, F., Ghosh, A. (Eds.), Plug In Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids: Integration Techniques, Power Systems. Springer, Singapore, pp. 129–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Geosciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Beliefs About Innate Talent May Dissuade Students From STEM [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Results Act: Observations on NASA’s May 1997 Draft Strategic Plan (No. NSIAD-97-205R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saperstein, A.M., 2009. Susceptibility to smoking and nicotine dependence in schizophrenia (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J., 2017. Ancient Guano Reveals a Tale of Penguins Devastated by Volcanoes. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giles, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Novick, 2009; Giles, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Novick, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Diskin et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Geosciences
AbbreviationComput. Geosci.
ISSN (print)0098-3004
ScopeInformation Systems
Computers in Earth Sciences

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