How to format your references using the Heart Rhythm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart Rhythm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weitz DA: Materials science. Unjamming a polymer glass. Science 2009; 323:214–215.
A journal article with 2 authors
Becker A, Grünewald U: Disaster management. Flood risk in Central Europe. Science 2003; 300:1099.
A journal article with 3 authors
Choe J, Kelker MS, Wilson IA: Crystal structure of human toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ectodomain. Science 2005; 309:581–585.
A journal article with 13 or more authors
Lakes RS, Lee T, Bersie A, Wang YC: Extreme damping in composite materials with negative-stiffness inclusions. Nature 2001; 410:565–567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aronson DR: Evidence-Based Technical Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006,.
An edited book
Lin Z, Wang J, editors: Low-cost Nanomaterials: Toward Greener and More Efficient Energy Applications. London: Springer, 2014,.
A chapter in an edited book
Alford Z, White MA: Positive School Psychology. In White MA, Murray AS, eds: Evidence-Based Approaches in Positive Education: Implementing a Strategic Framework for Well-being in Schools. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015, pp. 93–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart Rhythm.

Blog post
Andrew E: IPCC Advises “Almost Entirely” Eliminating Unrestricted Use of Fossil Fuels By 2100 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30],. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Comments on NTSB Employee’s Claim for TQSE]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996 Feb. Report No.: B-260471.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Forshey TM: Neural basis of the neurological diagnostic power of vibrotactile sensory testing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina, 2013,.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B: Win Doesn’t Quiet Talk Over a Suspicious Loss. New York Times 2017 Sep 1;SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart Rhythm
AbbreviationHeart Rhythm
ISSN (print)1547-5271
ISSN (online)1556-3871
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Physiology (medical)

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