How to format your references using the Heart Rhythm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart Rhythm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ballschmiter K: Atmospheric chemistry. A marine source for alkyl nitrates. Science 2002; 297:1127–1128.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neels JG, Olefsky JM: Cell signaling. A new way to burn fat. Science 2006; 312:1756–1758.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rastogi D, Suzuki M, Greally JM: Differential epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns in childhood obesity-associated asthma. Sci Rep 2013; 3:2164.
A journal article with 13 or more authors
Gozlan RE, St-Hilaire S, Feist SW, Martin P, Kent ML: Biodiversity: disease threat to European fish. Nature 2005; 435:1046.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
da Silva LS, Simões R, Gervásio H: Design of Steel Structures. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, 2012,.
An edited book
Nelson JK, editor: Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposites. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2010,.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanati S, Allred DC: The Progression of Pre-invasive to Invasive Cancer. In Fitzgerald RC, ed: Pre-Invasive Disease: Pathogenesis and Clinical Management. New York, NY: Springer, 2011, pp. 65–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart Rhythm.

Blog post
Andrew D: Slippery Seal Successfully Avoids Becoming Great White’s Supper [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30],. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: GPS Disruptions: Efforts to Assess Risks to Critical Infrastructure and Coordinate Agency Actions Should Be Enhanced. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013 Nov. Report No.: GAO-14-15.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Randall R: Department of Children and Family Services workers’ knowledge of childhood obesity and services for obese children [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach, 2009,.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B: Imperfections. New York Times 2017 Jul 27;C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart Rhythm
AbbreviationHeart Rhythm
ISSN (print)1547-5271
ISSN (online)1556-3871
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Physiology (medical)

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