How to format your references using the Environmental Evidence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Evidence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Starr DA. Cell biology. Nuclei get TAN lines. Science. 2010;329:909–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Parson EA, Keith DW. Science and regulation. End the deadlock on governance of geoengineering research. Science. 2013;339:1278–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Catteruccia F, Godfray HCJ, Crisanti A. Impact of genetic manipulation on the fitness of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Science. 2003;299:1225–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Stelling J, Klamt S, Bettenbrock K, Schuster S, Gilles ED. Metabolic network structure determines key aspects of functionality and regulation. Nature. 2002;420:190–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Van Der Pijl P, Solomon LK, Lokitz J. How To Design a Better Business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Mángano MG, Buatois LA, editors. The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events: Volume 1: Precambrian and Paleozoic. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hanson GR, Noble CJ, Benson S. XSophe – Sophe – XeprView and Molecular Sophe: Computer Simulation Software Suites for the Analysis of Continuous Wave and Pulsed EPR and ENDOR Spectra. In: Lund A, Shiotani M, editors. EPR of Free Radicals in Solids I: Trends in Methods and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 223–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Evidence.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Yes, Wearing A Bike Helmet Really Does Reduce Your Risk Of Injury [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Review of the Bay Area Rapid Transit District’s Airport Extension Finance Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Mar. Report No.: RCED-00-95R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McCorkle WB. Tongue, Nib, Block, Bit: Rhetorical Delivery and Technologies of Writing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. Leonard Cohen Book Scheduled for 2018. New York Times. 2017 Oct 6;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Evidence
ISSN (online)2047-2382

Other styles