How to format your references using the The Physician and Sportsmedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Physician and Sportsmedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chakradhar S. Colorectal cancer: 5 big questions. Nature. 2015;521(7551):S16.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheinin MY, Wang MD. Biochemistry. A DNA twist diffuses and hops. Science. 2012;338(6103):56-57.
A journal article with 3 authors
McPhaden MJ, Zebiak SE, Glantz MH. ENSO as an integrating concept in earth science. Science. 2006;314(5806):1740-1745.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cino EA, Killoran RC, Karttunen M, Choy WY. Binding of disordered proteins to a protein hub. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitrapu P. Wideband TDD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Okuno E. Biomechanics of the Human Body. (Fratin L, ed.). Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramos NMM, Delgado JMPQ, Almeida RMSF, Simões ML, Manuel S. Application of Data Mining Techniques. In: Delgado JMPQ, Almeida RMSF, Simões ML, Manuel S, eds. Application of Data Mining Techniques in the Analysis of Indoor Hygrothermal Conditions. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Springer International Publishing; 2016:37-45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Physician and Sportsmedicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Mercury Level In Your Tuna Is Getting Higher. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Problems Persist in FAA’s Inspection Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gittens BE. Perceptions of the Applicability of Transformational Leadership Behavior to the Leader Role of Academic Department Chairs: A Study of Selected Universities in Virginia. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B, Davis JH. Trump Vows Cuts in Wall St. Rules From Obama Era. New York Times. February 3, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Physician and Sportsmedicine
AbbreviationPhys. Sportsmed.
ISSN (print)0091-3847
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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