How to format your references using the The Physician and Sportsmedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Physician and Sportsmedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leadlay PF. Structural biology: enzyme assembly line pictured. Nature. 2014;510(7506):482-483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carrel L, Willard HF. X-inactivation profile reveals extensive variability in X-linked gene expression in females. Nature. 2005;434(7031):400-404.
A journal article with 3 authors
London AJ, Kimmelman J, Emborg ME. Research ethics. Beyond access vs. protection in trials of innovative therapies. Science. 2010;328(5980):829-830.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hwang D, Jin J-S, Lee H, et al. Hierarchically structured Zn2SnO4 nanobeads for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7353.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kwartler T. Text Mining in Practice with R. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Madabhushi A, Dowling J, Yan P, Fenster A, Abolmaesumi P, Hata N, eds. Prostate Cancer Imaging. Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Intervention: International Workshop, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2010, Beijing,China, September 24, 2010. Proceedings. Vol 6367. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Grinin L, Korotayev A. The Great Convergence and Globalization: How Former Colonies Became the World Economic Locomotives. In: Korotayev A, ed. Great Divergence and Great Convergence: A Global Perspective. Springer International Publishing; 2015:115-158.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Physician and Sportsmedicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Australian Rabbits Adapting To Eat Plants Thought To Be Too Toxic. IFLScience. Published November 15, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cloud Computing: Additional Opportunities and Savings Need to Be Pursued. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hill - Carter CN. Effects of teacher mentoring on teacher retention. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Let U.S. Transfer Padilla to Civilian Custody. New York Times. January 5, 2006:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Physician and Sportsmedicine
AbbreviationPhys. Sportsmed.
ISSN (print)0091-3847
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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