How to format your references using the The Physician and Sportsmedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Physician and Sportsmedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Renfrew C. Anthropology. Where bacteria and languages concur. Science. 2009;323(5913):467-468.
A journal article with 2 authors
Webby RJ, Webster RG. Are we ready for pandemic influenza? Science. 2003;302(5650):1519-1522.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ford MGJ, Jenni S, Nunnari J. The crystal structure of dynamin. Nature. 2011;477(7366):561-566.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ouzounov DG, Ahmad FR, Müller D, et al. Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers. Science. 2003;301(5640):1702-1704.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kondrashov AS. Crumbling Genome. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Isabelle AD. Inspiring STEM Minds: Biographies and Activities for Elementary Classrooms. (Valle NZ, ed.). SensePublishers; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Ifenthaler D, Pirnay-Dummer P. States and Processes of Learning Communities. Engaging Students in Meaningful Reflection and Learning. In: White B, King I, Tsang P, eds. Social Media Tools and Platforms in Learning Environments. Springer; 2011:81-94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Physician and Sportsmedicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Asthma Can Impact The Sex Lives Of Sufferers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Evaluation of Small Business Innovation Research Can Be Strengthened. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cardillo-Geller L. Renegotiating Relationships, Patterns of Grief and Experiences of Support: An Examination of Mothers’ Relationships with Their Daughters Following Daughters’ Loss of a Husband in the September 11 Th, 2001 World Trade Center Attacks. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Where Heathcliff Fears to Tread. New York Times. March 14, 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Physician and Sportsmedicine
AbbreviationPhys. Sportsmed.
ISSN (print)0091-3847
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles