How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kronenberg, H. M. (2003). Developmental regulation of the growth plate. Nature 423, 332–336.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, T. J., and Mundy, G. R. (2007). Bone metastasis: can osteoclasts be excluded? Nature 445, E19; discussion E19-20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schoener, T. W., Spiller, D. A., and Losos, J. B. (2001). Natural restoration of the species-area relation for a lizard after a hurricane. Science 294, 1525–1528.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hu, C., Ahmed, M., Melia, T. J., Söllner, T. H., Mayer, T., and Rothman, J. E. (2003). Fusion of cells by flipped SNAREs. Science 300, 1745–1749.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Almeida, J. P. M., and Maunder, E. A. W. (2017). Equilibrium Finite Element Formulations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ambrósio, J. A. C. ed. (2005). Advances in Computational Multibody Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Luo, Q., Zhao, A., and Zhang, H. (2012). “A Layered Model of Artificial Emotion Merging with Attitude,” in Foundations of Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, Shanghai, China, Dec 2011 (ISKE2011) Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing., eds. Y. Wang and T. Li (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Check Out This Awesome View From a Blue Whale’s Back. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). ADP Modernization: FCC’s Automation Planning Is Inadequate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moreau, E. L. (2014). Sailing on a Sea of Hope: Exploring the Impact of Federal Consolidation on Individual Identification and Organizational Identity.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2003). Bolshoi Decides It’s Over Before “Fat” Lady Dances. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kronenberg, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kronenberg, 2003; Martin and Mundy, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Mundy, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Cell. Infect. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)2235-2988
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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