How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D. (2002). Cambridge-MIT Institute probed. Nature 420, 256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hulleman, C. S., and Harackiewicz, J. M. (2009). Promoting interest and performance in high school science classes. Science 326, 1410–1412.
A journal article with 3 authors
Irie, M., Kobatake, S., and Horichi, M. (2001). Reversible surface morphology changes of a photochromic diarylethene single crystal by photoirradiation. Science 291, 1769–1772.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chakrabarti, R., Celià-Terrassa, T., Kumar, S., Hang, X., Wei, Y., Choudhury, A., et al. (2018). Notch ligand Dll1 mediates cross-talk between mammary stem cells and the macrophageal niche. Science 360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fabozzi, F. J. (2009). Institutional Investment Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dillmann, A., Heller, G., Krämer, E., Kreplin, H.-P., Nitsche, W., and Rist, U. eds. (2014). New Results in Numerical and Experimental Fluid Mechanics IX: Contributions to the 18th STAB/DGLR Symposium, Stuttgart, Germany, 2012. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sekitoleko, N., Evbota, F., Knauss, E., Sandberg, A., Chaudron, M., and Olsson, H. H. (2014). “Technical Dependency Challenges in Large-Scale Agile Software Development,” in Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming: 15th International Conference, XP 2014, Rome, Italy, May 26-30, 2014. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing., eds. G. Cantone and M. Marchesi (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 46–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). If You Use One Of These Popular Internet Services, You Need To Change Your Password Right Now. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Federal Communications Commission: Broadcast Services, Television Broadcast Stations, and TV Transmission Standards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marcus, J. (2012). Voices of survival: Opera in Theresienstadt.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erlanger, S. (2014). Greek Statue Travels Again, but Not to Greece. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Adam, 2002; Hulleman and Harackiewicz, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hulleman and Harackiewicz, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Chakrabarti et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Cell. Infect. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)2235-2988
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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