How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batista, V. S. (2009). Chemistry. Energy flow under control. Science 326, 245–246.
A journal article with 2 authors
Odegaard, J. I., and Chawla, A. (2013). Pleiotropic actions of insulin resistance and inflammation in metabolic homeostasis. Science 339, 172–177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doligez, B., Danchin, E., and Clobert, J. (2002). Public information and breeding habitat selection in a wild bird population. Science 297, 1168–1170.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mikosch, J., Trippel, S., Eichhorn, C., Otto, R., Lourderaj, U., Zhang, J. X., et al. (2008). Imaging nucleophilic substitution dynamics. Science 319, 183–186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saliba, A. J., Corona, J. C., and Johnson, K. E. (2010). Option Spread Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Atienza Alonso, D. (2015). Dynamic Memory Management for Embedded Systems. , eds. S. Mamagkakis, C. Poucet, M. Peón-Quirós, A. Bartzas, F. Catthoor, and D. Soudris Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hrvoic, I., and Newitt, L. R. (2011). “Instruments and Methodologies for Measurement of the Earth’s Magnetic Field,” in Geomagnetic Observations and Models, eds. M. Mandea and M. Korte (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 105–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016). Female Birds Sing To Tell Predators To Back Off. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Federal Aviation Administration: Stronger Architecture Program Needed to Guide Systems Modernization Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhuang, S. (2008). Enhancing Implicit Finite Element Sheet Forming Simulation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J. (2017). Her Peers Made School Look Easy. With Hard Work, She’s Catching Up. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Batista, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Batista, 2009; Odegaard and Chawla, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Odegaard and Chawla, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Mikosch et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Cell. Infect. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)2235-2988
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles