How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hilton, D. R. (2007). Geochemistry. The leaking mantle. Science 318, 1389–1390.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacCoun, R., and Perlmutter, S. (2015). Blind analysis: Hide results to seek the truth. Nature 526, 187–189.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mullen, K. T., Kim, Y. J., and Gheiratmand, M. (2014). Contrast normalization in colour vision: the effect of luminance contrast on colour contrast detection. Sci. Rep. 4, 7350.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gomes, R., Levison, H. F., Tsiganis, K., and Morbidelli, A. (2005). Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets. Nature 435, 466–469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hao, L., and Lawrence, J. (2006). Laser Surface Treatment of Bio-Implant Materials. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Balandin, S., Andreev, S., and Koucheryavy, Y. eds. (2015). Internet of Things, Smart Spaces, and Next Generation Networks and Systems: 15th International Conference, NEW2AN 2015, and 8th Conference, ruSMART 2015, St. Petersburg, Russia, August 26-28, 2015, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Beilina, L., Andresen, M. P. H., and Krogstad, H. E. (2013). “Adaptive Finite Element Method in Reconstruction of Dielectrics from Backscattered Data,” in Applied Inverse Problems: Select Contributions from the First Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics., ed. L. Beilina (New York, NY: Springer), 51–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). How To Reach Zero Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions In Three Steps. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002). Surface and Maritime Transportation: Challenges and Strategies for Enhancing Mobility. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mullis, J. (2009). The impact of the media on public opinion of the police.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kerry, J. (2017). What We Got Right. New York Times, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hilton, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hilton, 2007; MacCoun and Perlmutter, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (MacCoun and Perlmutter, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Gomes et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Sciences
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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