How to format your references using the Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moritz, M. A. (2012). Wildfires ignite debate on global warming. Nature 487, 273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tokuriki, N., and Tawfik, D. S. (2009). Chaperonin overexpression promotes genetic variation and enzyme evolution. Nature 459, 668–673.
A journal article with 3 authors
Penner, J. E., Dong, X., and Chen, Y. (2004). Observational evidence of a change in radiative forcing due to the indirect aerosol effect. Nature 427, 231–234.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ng, F.-L., Jaafar, M. M., Phang, S.-M., Chan, Z., Salleh, N. A., Azmi, S. Z., et al. (2014). Reduced graphene oxide anodes for potential application in algae biophotovoltaic platforms. Sci. Rep. 4, 7562.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hagen, J. (2005). Industrial Catalysis. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Ivancevic, T. T. (2009). Complex Sports Biodynamics: With Practical Applications in Tennis. , eds. B. Jovanovic, S. Djukic, M. Djukic, and S. Markovic Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rao, K. R., and Paranjpe, A. C. (2016). “Mind–Body Complex,” in Psychology in the Indian Tradition, ed. A. C. Paranjpe (New Delhi: Springer India), 95–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Gastrointestinal Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Scientists Teach Birds The “Language” Of Another Bird Species. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982). UMTA’s Research and Development Program Should Pay Closer Attention to Transit Industry Needs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Proser, M. (2015). Ingredients for Optimal Care: Exploring Factors Associated with Patient Quality Outcomes among Federally-Qualified Health Centers.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2017). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, MM26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moritz, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Moritz, 2012; Tokuriki and Tawfik, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tokuriki and Tawfik, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Ng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Gastrointestinal Sciences
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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