How to format your references using the Journal of Thoracic Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Thoracic Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simonton DK. After Einstein: Scientific genius is extinct. Nature. 2013;493(7434):602.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiseman RL, Kelly JW. Cell biology. Phosphatase inhibition delays translational recovery. Science. 2011;332(6025):44-45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoo AS, Bais C, Greenwald I. Crosstalk between the EGFR and LIN-12/Notch pathways in C. elegans vulval development. Science. 2004;303(5658):663-666.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brunthaler A, Reid MJ, Falcke H, Greenhill LJ, Henkel C. The geometric distance and proper motion of the Triangulum Galaxy (M33). Science. 2005;307(5714):1440-1443.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barrett-Lennard GT. The Relationship Inventory. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Brown KA. Obesity and Breast Cancer: The Role of Dysregulated Estrogen Metabolism. (Simpson ER, ed.). Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Hirz M, Dietrich W, Gfrerrer A, Lang J. Knowledge-Based Design. In: Dietrich W, Gfrerrer A, Lang J, eds. Integrated Computer-Aided Design in Automotive Development: Development Processes, Geometric Fundamentals, Methods of CAD, Knowledge-Based Engineering Data Management. Springer; 2013:309-330.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Thoracic Oncology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. The Real-Life Planets And Moons That Resemble Worlds In “Star Wars.” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: NASA’s Software Development Approach Increases Safety and Cost Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vu MH. Efficiency of Pair-Wise and Multiple Alignment Algorithms in Computational Biology. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hill J, Kramer AE. No Love for Valentine’s: In Russia, Florists Bank on a Day for Women. New York Times. March 8, 2017:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Thoracic Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Thorac. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1556-0864
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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