How to format your references using the Journal of Thoracic Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Thoracic Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S. Getting the meaning. Nature. 2004;428(6984):776.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yewdell JW, Ince WL. Virology. Frameshifting to PA-X influenza. Science. 2012;337(6091):164-165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gratson GM, Xu M, Lewis JA. Microperiodic structures: direct writing of three-dimensional webs. Nature. 2004;428(6981):386.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Song YY, Ye M, Li C, et al. Hijacking common mycorrhizal networks for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer between tomato plants. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3915.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthou P, Baudoin C, Gayraud T, Gineste M. Satellite and Terrestrial Hybrid Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Fred A, De Marsico M, eds. Pattern Recognition Applications and Methods: International Conference, ICPRAM 2013 Barcelona, Spain, February 15-18, 2013 Revised Selected Papers. Vol 318. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Jain V, Verma SK. Commercial Importance. In: Verma SK, ed. Pharmacology of Bombax Ceiba Linn. SpringerBriefs in Pharmacology and Toxicology. Springer; 2012:69-72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Thoracic Oncology.

Blog post
Fang J. Sea Level Rise Could Drown Eggs At Turtle Nesting Sites. IFLScience. Published July 24, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Civil Space: NASA’s Strategic Planning Process. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matthews LK. The impact of trait displaced aggression and social support on cardiovascular reactivity. Published online 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tierney J. The Perfect Gift? It’s the One They Asked For. New York Times. December 12, 2016:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Thoracic Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Thorac. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1556-0864
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles