How to format your references using the Journal of Thoracic Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Thoracic Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alward WLM. Biomedicine. A new angle on ocular development. Science. 2003;299(5612):1527-1528.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tallis H, Lubchenco J. Working together: A call for inclusive conservation. Nature. 2014;515(7525):27-28.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allen AP, Brown JH, Gillooly JF. Global biodiversity, biochemical kinetics, and the energetic-equivalence rule. Science. 2002;297(5586):1545-1548.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Okamoto I, Patrat C, Thépot D, et al. Eutherian mammals use diverse strategies to initiate X-chromosome inactivation during development. Nature. 2011;472(7343):370-374.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgado RLC, Araki M. Spoken, Multilingual and Multimodal Dialogue Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Leeuwen J van, Muscholl A, Peleg D, Pokorný J, Rumpe B, eds. SOFSEM 2010: Theory and Practice of Computer Science: 36th Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, Špindlerův Mlýn, Czech Republic, January 23-29, 2010. Proceedings. Vol 5901. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Baldocchi DD, Ryu Y. A Synthesis of Forest Evaporation Fluxes – from Days to Years – as Measured with Eddy Covariance. In: Levia DF, Carlyle-Moses D, Tanaka T, eds. Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry: Synthesis of Past Research and Future Directions. Ecological Studies. Springer Netherlands; 2011:101-116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Thoracic Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew D. Why The Earth’s Magnetic Poles Could Be About To Swap Places – And How It Would affect Us. IFLScience. Published January 30, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FDA’s Activities Involving Sanitation Conditions at Food Storage Warehouses. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendez H. Examination of Friendship and Burnout among Child Welfare Workers. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L. Bring On The Wind And Water. New York Times. August 15, 2013:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Thoracic Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Thorac. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1556-0864
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles