How to format your references using the Journal of Thoracic Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Thoracic Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M. Big data: The power of petabytes. Nature. 2015;527(7576):S2-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Humler E, Besse J. A correlation between mid-ocean-ridge basalt chemistry and distance to continents. Nature. 2002;419(6907):607-609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Padture NP, Gell M, Jordan EH. Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications. Science. 2002;296(5566):280-284.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Deluga GA, Salge JR, Schmidt LD, Verykios XE. Renewable hydrogen from ethanol by autothermal reforming. Science. 2004;303(5660):993-997.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szczecinski L, Alvarado A. Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Chakraborty UK, ed. Computational Intelligence in Flow Shop and Job Shop Scheduling. Vol 230. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Day LE, Hutton G. Towards Modular Compilers for Effects. In: Peña R, Page R, eds. Trends in Functional Programming: 12th International Symposium, TFP 2011, Madrid, Spain, May 16-18, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2012:49-64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Thoracic Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Bacterial Communication Signals Altered To Battle Pancreatic Cancer. IFLScience. Published September 25, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Cost Control Problems Continue to Worsen. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matsuda T. Computational Proposal for Locating Local Defects in Superconducting Tapes. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Bomber Hits Courthouse in Damascus. New York Times. March 15, 2017:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Thoracic Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Thorac. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1556-0864
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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