How to format your references using the BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Alonso J-M. Neuroscience. Neurons find strength through synchrony in the brain. Science. 2006;312:1604–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schreiber H, Rowley DA. Cancer. Awakening immunity. Science. 2010;330:761–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fiser J, Chiu C, Weliky M. Small modulation of ongoing cortical dynamics by sensory input during natural vision. Nature. 2004;431:573–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Pan X, Eathiraj S, Munson M, Lambright DG. TBC-domain GAPs for Rab GTPases accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a dual-finger mechanism. Nature. 2006;442:303–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chappell D. Parris’s Standard Form of Building Contract. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Saunders WB, Landman NH, editors. Nautilus: The Biology and Paleobiology of a Living Fossil, Reprint with additions. 2nd edition. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Broekel T, Hartog M. Determinants of Cross-Regional R&D Collaboration Networks: An Application of Exponential Random Graph Models. In: Scherngell T, editor. The Geography of Networks and R&D Collaborations. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013. p. 49–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Ice And Speed, The Drugs That Kept Soldiers Awake And A President Young. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/ice-and-speed-the-drugs-that-kept-soldiers-awake-and-a-president-young/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information and Technology Management: Responsibilities, Reporting Relationships, Tenure, and Challenges of Agency Chief Information Officers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Horvath CP. Comparison of waste heat driven and electrically driven cooling systems for a high ambient temperature, off-grid application. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. An Observer Inside the Terrifying World of Jihad. New York Times. 2017;:C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
AbbreviationBMC Musculoskelet. Disord.
ISSN (online)1471-2474
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Rheumatology

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