How to format your references using the BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dolgin E. Technology: Barriers to misuse. Nature. 2015;522:S60-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Abraham RT, Tibbetts RS. Cell biology. Guiding ATM to broken DNA. Science. 2005;308:510–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wible B, Mervis J, Wigginton NS. The global supply chain. Rethinking the global supply chain. Introduction. Science. 2014;344:1100–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Malajovich I, Berry JJ, Samarth N, Awschalom DD. Persistent sourcing of coherent spins for multifunctional semiconductor spintronics. Nature. 2001;411:770–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stokes G. A Practical Guide to the Wiring Regulations. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Salah AA, Kröse BJA, Cook DJ, editors. Human Behavior Understanding: 6th International Workshop, HBU 2015, Osaka, Japan, September 8, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bott O, Hamm F. Cross-Linguistic Variation in the Processing of Aspect. In: Hemforth B, Mertins B, Fabricius-Hansen C, editors. Psycholinguistic Approaches to Meaning and Understanding across Languages. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 83–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Astronomers Discover Our Sun’s “Sibling.” IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review Of Reliability Of The Air Force Personnel Data System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1968.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lin L-M. Transformation in Chinese Theatre Works’ the Legend of White Snake. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hollander S. National Titles Go to Wealing And Lindquist. New York Times. 2002;:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
AbbreviationBMC Musculoskelet. Disord.
ISSN (online)1471-2474
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles