How to format your references using the Frontiers in Ethnopharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Ethnopharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Musacchio, A. (2010). Molecular biology. Surfing chromosomes (and Survivin). Science 330, 183–184.
A journal article with 2 authors
Henneman, M. L., and Memmott, J. (2001). Infiltration of a Hawaiian community by introduced biological control agents. Science 293, 1314–1316.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smothers, J. F., Henikoff, S., and Carter, P. (2002). Tech.Sight. Phage display. Affinity selection from biological libraries. Science 298, 621–622.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mutreja, A., Kim, D. W., Thomson, N. R., Connor, T. R., Lee, J. H., Kariuki, S., et al. (2011). Evidence for several waves of global transmission in the seventh cholera pandemic. Nature 477, 462–465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochstadt, H. (1988). Integral Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dunis, C. L., Middleton, P. W., Karathanasopolous, A., and Theofilatos, K. eds. (2016). Artificial Intelligence in Financial Markets: Cutting Edge Applications for Risk Management, Portfolio Optimization and Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Gilbert-Barness, E., Spicer, D. E., and Steffensen, T. S. (2014). “Hydrops, Cystic Hygroma, Fetal Hydrothorax, and Fetal Ascites,” in Handbook of Pediatric Autopsy Pathology, eds. D. E. Spicer and T. S. Steffensen (New York, NY: Springer), 171–180.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Ethnopharmacology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Inventor Of The World Wide Web Sends Open Letter To “Save The Open Internet In Europe.” IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010). Organizational Transformation: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 2.0) (Supersedes GAO-03-584G). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Navarro, C. (2012). Advocacy services for high-risk Latino families caring for children with autism: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Creswell, J., and Gustines, G. G. (2014). A High-End Tussle. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Musacchio, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Henneman and Memmott, 2001; Musacchio, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Henneman and Memmott, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Mutreja et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Ethnopharmacology
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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