How to format your references using the Frontiers in Ethnopharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Ethnopharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. (2004). Retraction signals end of cell-biology debate. Nature 427, 574.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heilbron, J. L., and Bynum, W. F. (2002). 1902 and all that. Nature 415, 15–18.
A journal article with 3 authors
Katz, S. L., Syme, D. A., and Shadwick, R. E. (2001). High-speed swimming. Enhanced power in yellowfin tuna. Nature 410, 770–771.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brunner, D., Gerardot, B. D., Dalgarno, P. A., Wüst, G., Karrai, K., Stoltz, N. G., et al. (2009). A coherent single-hole spin in a semiconductor. Science 325, 70–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choudhry, M., Moskovic, D., Wong, M., Baig, S., Liu, Z., Lizzio, M., et al. (2014). Fixed Income Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Scuderi, N., and Toth, B. A. eds. (2016). International Textbook of Aesthetic Surgery. 1st ed. 2016. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Moumtzoglou, A., and Kastania, A. (2013). “An Expository Discourse of E-Health,” in Systems Analysis Tools for Better Health Care Delivery Springer Optimization and Its Applications., eds. P. M. Pardalos, P. G. Georgiev, P. Papajorgji, and B. Neugaard (New York, NY: Springer), 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Ethnopharmacology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Soldiers’ Brains Electrocuted To Make Them More Attentive. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998). Federal Research: Observations on the Small Business Innovation Research Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hawkins, J. T. (2017). A Private Solution to a Public Problem: Managing Hydraulic Fracturing Risks by Enhancing Private Governance through Mandatory Insurance Requirements.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. A. (2003). Weekender | Great Barrington, Mass. New York Times, F7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Check, 2004; Heilbron and Bynum, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heilbron and Bynum, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Brunner et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Ethnopharmacology
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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