How to format your references using the Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: New Breed of Protester Asks: Why Not Us? Science. 2000;290(5494):1075.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smetacek V, Mechsner F. Making sense. Nature. 2004;432(7013):21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smallman HS, MacLeod DI, Doyle P. Vision. Realignment of cones after cataract removal. Nature. 2001;412(6847):604-605.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Keppler F, Harper DB, Greule M, et al. Chloromethane release from carbonaceous meteorite affords new insight into Mars lander findings. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz ER, Belfort MA, Saade GR, Miller H. Obstetric Clinical Algorithms: Management and Evidence. Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Tymieniecka A-T, ed. Human Creation between Reality and Illusion. Vol 87. Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Bedigian D. African Origins of Sesame Cultivation in the Americas. In: Voeks R, Rashford J, eds. African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Springer; 2013:67-120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Insanely Fuel Efficient Engine Could Go To Mars And Back On One Tank Of Fuel. IFLScience. Published September 21, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Efforts To Comply With P.L. 94-142 and Selected Youth Services Administration Management Functions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown CE. Sources for the reevaluation of George Frederick Root’s career: The autobiography & a secular cantata. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. At the Nation’s Table: Davenport, Calif.; A New-Age Juice Intended For Women. New York Times. January 25, 1995:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Laboratory Medicine
ISSN (print)2542-3649

Other styles