How to format your references using the Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yanagida M. Heads and tails. Nature. 2004;429(6988):135.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hengel H, Koszinowski UH. Virology. A vaccine monkey wrench? Science. 2010;328(5974):51-52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Solov’yov IA, Domratcheva T, Schulten K. Separation of photo-induced radical pair in cryptochrome to a functionally critical distance. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3845.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nelson G, Chandrashekar J, Hoon MA, et al. An amino-acid taste receptor. Nature. 2002;416(6877):199-202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scharf T. Polarized Light in Liquid Crystals and Polymers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Zhang X, Sun M, Wang Z, Huang X, eds. Social Media Processing: 4th National Conference, SMP 2015, Guangzhou, China, November 16-17, 2015, Proceedings. Vol 568. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsujimoto Y. Stability Analysis of Cavitating Flows Through Inducers. In: d’Agostino L, Salvetti MV, eds. Fluid Dynamics of Cavitation and Cavitating Turbopumps. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Vienna: Springer; 2007:191-210.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Tens Of Thousands Of Fish Die In Yellowstone River, Prompting Authorities To Close It Down. IFLScience. Published August 23, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Offsets: Improvements to Program Design Could Better Assist Older Student Loan Borrowers with Obtaining Permitted Relief. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson A. Instructional Practices in Physical Education Programs for Students with Disabilities. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Unilever to Buy South Korean Skin Care Specialist. New York Times. September 25, 2017:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Laboratory Medicine
ISSN (print)2542-3649

Other styles