How to format your references using the Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N. Materials science: Super carbon. Nature. 2012;483(7389):S30-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leonhardt U, Tyc T. Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking. Science. 2009;323(5910):110-112.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lintunen A, Hölttä T, Kulmala M. Anatomical regulation of ice nucleation and cavitation helps trees to survive freezing and drought stress. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2031.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ni M, Zhang W-Z, Qiu J-R, et al. Association of ERCC1 and ERCC2 polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Habart-Corlosquet M, Janssen J, Manca R. VaR Methodology for Non-Gaussian Finance. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Linte CA, Chen ECS, Berger M-O, Moore JT, Holmes DR, eds. Augmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions: 7th International Workshop, AE-CAI 2012, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2012, Nice, France, October 5, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 7815. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Hart WE, Laird C, Watson J-P, Woodruff DL. Miscellaneous Model Components and Utility Functions. In: Laird C, Watson J-P, Woodruff DL, eds. Pyomo – Optimization Modeling in Python. Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012:57-65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Predatory ‘Glow Worm’ Discovered In Peruvian Rainforest. IFLScience. Published November 19, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Vouchers: Characteristics of Privately Funded Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kilpatrick RF. A World Less Paved. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Someone Ought To Make a Movie. New York Times. October 30, 2011:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Laboratory Medicine
ISSN (print)2542-3649

Other styles