How to format your references using the Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van der Leij MJ. Sociology. Experimenting with buddies. Science. 2011;334(6060):1220-1221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boyd PW, Mackie D. Comment on “The Southern Ocean biological response to aeolian iron deposition.” Science. 2008;319(5860):159; author reply 159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Külheim C, Agren J, Jansson S. Rapid regulation of light harvesting and plant fitness in the field. Science. 2002;297(5578):91-93.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hönisch B, Hemming NG, Archer D, Siddall M, McManus JF. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration across the mid-Pleistocene transition. Science. 2009;324(5934):1551-1554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shover L. Trading Options in Turbulent Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Lenk A. Electromechanical Systems in Microtechnology and Mechatronics: Electrical, Mechanical and Acoustic Networks, Their Interactions and Applications. (Ballas RG, Werthschützky R, Pfeifer G, eds.). Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Bandt C, Groth A, Marwan N, et al. Analysis of Bivariate Coupling by Means of Recurrence. In: Dahlhaus R, Kurths J, Maass P, Timmer J, eds. Mathematical Methods in Signal Processing and Digital Image Analysis. Understanding Complex Systems. Springer; 2008:153-182.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Terminally Ill Teenage Girl Wins Right To Have Her Body Cryogenically Frozen. IFLScience. Published November 18, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration: Technology Modernization Needs Improved Planning and Performance Measures. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LeBlanc DC. The Relationship between Information Technology Project Manager Personality Type and Project Success. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton’s Staff Sees Campaign As a Real War. New York Times. August 11, 1992:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Laboratory Medicine
ISSN (print)2542-3649

Other styles