How to format your references using the Frontiers in Energy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Energy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vanderah, T. A. (2002). Materials science. Talking ceramics. Science 298, 1182–1184.
A journal article with 2 authors
Noudoost, B., and Moore, T. (2011). Control of visual cortical signals by prefrontal dopamine. Nature 474, 372–375.
A journal article with 3 authors
Malmgren, R. D., Ottino, J. M., and Nunes Amaral, L. A. (2010). The role of mentorship in protégé performance. Nature 465, 622–626.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao, J., Sun, B. K., Erwin, J. A., Song, J.-J., and Lee, J. T. (2008). Polycomb proteins targeted by a short repeat RNA to the mouse X chromosome. Science 322, 750–756.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martindale, W. (2014). Global Food Security and Supply. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Khatib, O., Kumar, V., and Rus, D. eds. (2008). Experimental Robotics: The 10th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Koge, H., Ito, Y., and Nakano, K. (2014). “A GPU Implementation of Clipping-Free Halftoning Using the Direct Binary Search,” in Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 14th International Conference, ICA3PP 2014, Dalian, China, August 24-27, 2014. Proceedings, Part I Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. X.-H. Sun, W. Qu, I. Stojmenovic, W. Zhou, Z. Li, H. Guo, et al. (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Energy Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). California’s Water Paradox: Why Enough Will Never Be Enough. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). National Transportation Safety Board: Progress Made in Management Practices, Investigation Priorities, Training Center Use, and Information Security, But These Areas Continue to Need Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mednick Takami, L. (2017). Chief Diversity Officers in U.S. Higher Education: Impacting the Campus Climate for Diversity.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016). Keyboard Diplomacy. New York Times, BR23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vanderah, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Vanderah, 2002; Noudoost and Moore, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Noudoost and Moore, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Energy Research
AbbreviationFront. Energy Res.
ISSN (online)2296-598X

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