How to format your references using the Frontiers in Energy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Energy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G. (2002). China ponders joining fusion project. Nature 419, 545.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, Z.-H., and Schaap, P. (2012). The prokaryote messenger c-di-GMP triggers stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. Nature 488, 680–683.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wall, D. H., Nielsen, U. N., and Six, J. (2015). Soil biodiversity and human health. Nature 528, 69–76.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hu, Q., Zhu, Y., Liu, Y., Wang, N., and Chen, S. (2014). Cloning and characterization of wnt4a gene and evidence for positive selection in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Sci. Rep. 4, 7167.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tung, C.-H., Sheng, G. T. T., and Lu, C.-Y. (2005). ULSI Semiconductor Technology Atlas. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shirahata, S., Ikura, K., Nagao, M., Ichikawa, A., and Teruya, K. eds. (2009). Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association for Animal Cell Technology (JAACT), Kyoto, Japan, September 25-28, 2006. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Howie, C. (2005). “The Dysplastic Hip,” in The Well-Cemented Total Hip Arthroplasty: Theory and Practice, ed. H. Malchau (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 37–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Energy Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Vitamin Pills Could Increase Cancer Risk. IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/vitamin-pills-could-be-increasing-cancer-risk/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Within-School Discrimination: Inadequate Title VI Enforcement by the Office for Civil Rights. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uzan, E. (2017). Secondary Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers’ Processes of Selection and Integration of Technology.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2010). The Accidental Mom. New York Times, BR23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2002; Chen and Schaap, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Schaap, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Energy Research
AbbreviationFront. Energy Res.
ISSN (online)2296-598X
Scope

Other styles