How to format your references using the Frontiers in Energy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Energy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shea, K. (2007). Ecology. How the wood moves. Science 315, 1231–1232.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vidale, J. E., and Earle, P. S. (2000). Fine-scale heterogeneity in the Earth’s inner core. Nature 404, 273–275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sasaki, M., Takagi, M., and Okamura, Y. (2006). A voltage sensor-domain protein is a voltage-gated proton channel. Science 312, 589–592.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao, Z. Y., Liu, M. F., Li, X., Lin, L., Yan, Z. B., Dong, S., et al. (2014). Experimental observation of ferrielectricity in multiferroic DyMn2O5. Sci. Rep. 4, 3984.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, P., Brousse, T., and Favier, F. (2017). Supercapacitors Based on Carbon or Pseudocapacitive Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Borchers, H.-J. (2006). Mathematical Implications of Einstein-Weyl Causality. , ed. R. N. Sen Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramprasad, R., Shi, N., and Tang, C. (2010). “Modeling the Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces in Nanodielectrics,” in Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposites, ed. J. K. Nelson (Boston, MA: Springer US), 133–161.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Energy Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). Surprisingly, Bees Top The List Of Most Deadly Venomous Creatures In Australia. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Meeting the Aging Aircraft Challenge: Status and Opportunities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zoino, J. J. (2017). Field Methods, Sampling Strategies, Historical Documents, and Data Redundancy: A Study of Historic Tenant Farmsteads in Leflore County, Mississippi.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Caramanica, J. (2017). Sometimes Heartbreak Is a Blessing. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shea, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Vidale and Earle, 2000; Shea, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vidale and Earle, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Energy Research
AbbreviationFront. Energy Res.
ISSN (online)2296-598X

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