How to format your references using the Frontiers in Energy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Energy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacMillan, D. W. C. (2008). The advent and development of organocatalysis. Nature 455, 304–308.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiers, E. T., and West, S. A. (2015). Evolutionary biology. Evolving new organisms via symbiosis. Science 348, 392–394.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaganovich, D., Kopito, R., and Frydman, J. (2008). Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments. Nature 454, 1088–1095.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nakagawa, T., Shimizu, S., Watanabe, T., Yamaguchi, O., Otsu, K., Yamagata, H., et al. (2005). Cyclophilin D-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition regulates some necrotic but not apoptotic cell death. Nature 434, 652–658.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paczosa, S., and Peruchini, C. (2013). Selling Professional and Financial Services Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pereira, L. C., Haeusler, E. H., and de Paiva, V. eds. (2014). Advances in Natural Deduction: A Celebration of Dag Prawitz’s Work. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Mokhlespour, S., Haverkort, J. E. M., Slepyan, G. Y., Maksimenko, S. A., and Hoffmann, A. (2016). “Quantum Dot Lattice as Nano-Antenna for Collective Spontaneous Emission,” in Fundamental and Applied Nano-Electromagnetics NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics., eds. A. Maffucci and S. A. Maksimenko (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Energy Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Fat And Sugar-Heavy Diet Harms Your Brain – And Makes You Keep On Eating. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Federal Research: Changes in Electricity-Related R&D Funding. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, M. (2010). Therapeutic groups for adults with mental illness and their caregivers: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., and Maheshwari, S. (2017). CBS Woos Sponsors With Energetic Pitch By a Surging Colbert. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (MacMillan, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kiers and West, 2015; MacMillan, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kiers and West, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakagawa et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Energy Research
AbbreviationFront. Energy Res.
ISSN (online)2296-598X

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