How to format your references using the Frontiers in Energy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Energy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. (2008). Catalonian powerhouse. Nature 454, 248–249.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abramov, O., and Mojzsis, S. J. (2009). Microbial habitability of the Hadean Earth during the late heavy bombardment. Nature 459, 419–422.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shih, W. M., Quispe, J. D., and Joyce, G. F. (2004). A 1.7-kilobase single-stranded DNA that folds into a nanoscale octahedron. Nature 427, 618–621.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yogodzinski, G. M., Lees, J. M., Churikova, T. G., Dorendorf, F., Wöerner, G., and Volynets, O. N. (2001). Geochemical evidence for the melting of subducting oceanic lithosphere at plate edges. Nature 409, 500–504.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Etheridge, D. (2010). Excel® Data Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
García-Peña, C., Gutiérrez-Robledo, L. M., and Pérez-Zepeda, M. U. eds. (2015). Aging Research - Methodological Issues. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Krasauskas, R., and Zube, S. (2008). “Canal Surfaces Defined by Quadratic Families of Spheres,” in Geometric Modeling and Algebraic Geometry, eds. B. Jüttler and R. Piene (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 79–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Energy Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). “Scarface,” The Beloved Bear Of Yellowstone Park, Has Been Killed. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982). Strong Central Management of Office Automation Will Boost Productivity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Larson, S. E. (2014). A case of rational irrationality: Evidence of expressive interest bias in state e-commerce sales and use tax legislation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2015). Living at Random. New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier, 2008; Abramov and Mojzsis, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abramov and Mojzsis, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Yogodzinski et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Energy Research
AbbreviationFront. Energy Res.
ISSN (online)2296-598X

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