How to format your references using the Frontiers in Energy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Energy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mathur, N. (2005). The physics detective: Schrödinger’s mousetrap. Part 2. Nature 433, 363.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, J., and DeBerardinis, R. J. (2013). Cancer. Silencing a metabolic oncogene. Science 340, 558–559.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaller, J., Weiske, A., and Berger, F. (2013). Thunderbolt in biogeochemistry: galvanic effects of lightning as another source for metal remobilization. Sci. Rep. 3, 3122.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dai, Z. R., Bradley, J. P., Joswiak, D. J., Brownlee, D. E., Hill, H. G. M., and Genge, M. J. (2002). Possible in situ formation of meteoritic nanodiamonds in the early Solar System. Nature 418, 157–159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burd, B. (2011). Java® For Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Bella, S. D. (2005). The Science of the Individual: Leibniz’s Ontology of Individual Substance. , eds. E. Bencivenga, D. Berthold-Bond, W. J. Earle, A. Ferguson, and D. Lloyd Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Terhal, B. M. (2012). “The Fragility of Quantum Information?,” in Theory and Practice of Natural Computing: First International Conference, TPNC 2012, Tarragona, Spain, October 2-4, 2012. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. A.-H. Dediu, C. Martín-Vide, and B. Truthe (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Energy Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Last Moments Of An Epic Battle Between Two Moose Perfectly Preserved In Ice. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Information Technology Investment Management: An Overview of GAO’s Assessment Framework (Exposure Draft). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nam, Y.-H. (2008). On Throughput-Reliability-Delay Tradeoffs in Wireless Networks.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017). In Chelsea Bombing Trial, a Lesson on How a Cellphone Becomes a Trigger. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mathur, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Mathur, 2005; Kim and DeBerardinis, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and DeBerardinis, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dai et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Energy Research
AbbreviationFront. Energy Res.
ISSN (online)2296-598X

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