How to format your references using the The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp, Sandra. 2003. Dynamic diversity. Nature 422: 475.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ricklefs, Robert E., and Susanne S. Renner. 2012. Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality. Science (New York, N.Y.) 335: 464–467.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, Alexander R., Heinrich Dörfelt, and Vincent Perrichot. 2007. Carnivorous fungi from Cretaceous amber. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318: 1743.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Smith, Kenneth D., David von Seggern, Geoffrey Blewitt, Leiph Preston, John G. Anderson, Brian P. Wernicke, and James L. Davis. 2004. Evidence for deep magma injection beneath Lake Tahoe, Nevada-California. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305: 1277–1280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Acharya, Viral V., Thomas F. Cooley, Matthew Richardson, and Ingo Walter. 2010. Regulating Wall Street. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Agarwal, Ashok. 2016. Proteomics in Human Reproduction: Biomarkers for Millennials. Edited by Luna Samanta, Ricardo P. Bertolla, Damayanthi Durairajanayagam, and Paula Intasqui. SpringerBriefs in Reproductive Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Madon, Shirin, Nicolau Reinhard, Dewald Roode, and Geoff Walsham. 2006. Digital Inclusion Projects in Developing Countries: Value, Sustainability, and Scalability. In Social Inclusion: Societal and Organizational Implications for Information Systems: IFIP TC8 WG8.2 International Working Conference, July 12–15, 2006, Limerick, Ireland, ed. Eileen M. Trauth, Debra Howcroft, Tom Butler, Brian Fitzgerald, and Janice I. DeGross, 67–70. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2015. DARPA Is Building Jazz-Playing Robots. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 24.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Chief Information Officers: Ensuring Strong Leadership and an Effective Council. T-AIMD-98-22. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oliver, Cheri Nicole. 2008. The relationship between length of kindergarten day and student literacy and math achievement. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
SOPHIA OKUN TRACY; Sophia Okun Tracy lives in New Rochelle. 1987. TATTERED REMINDERS OF WORDS TO INSPIRE A CHILD. New York Times, July 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Knapp 2003; Ricklefs and Renner 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ricklefs and Renner 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics
ISSN (print)1383-4924
ISSN (online)1572-8552
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Linguistics and Language

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