How to format your references using the The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics (J Comp German Linguistics). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapuisat, Michel. 2014. Evolution. Smells like queen since the Cretaceous. Science (New York, N.Y.) 343: 254–255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Calka, A., and D. Wexler. 2002. Mechanical milling assisted by electrical discharge. Nature 419: 147–151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mumby, Peter J., Alan Hastings, and Helen J. Edwards. 2007. Thresholds and the resilience of Caribbean coral reefs. Nature 450: 98–101.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Guan, Ningzi, Hyun-Dong Shin, Rachel R. Chen, Jianghua Li, Long Liu, Guocheng Du, and Jian Chen. 2014. Understanding of how Propionibacterium acidipropionici respond to propionic acid stress at the level of proteomics. Scientific reports 4: 6951.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sugirtharajah, R. S. 2011. Exploring Postcolonial Biblical Criticism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Drislane, Frank W., ed. 2005. Status Epilepticus: A Clinical Perspective. Current Clinical Neurology. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Cao, Wei, Hui Zhou, Zhimin Zhou, and Zuowei Fu. 2012. An Approach for High Resolution Radar Target Recognition Based on BP Neural Network. In Advanced Intelligent Computing: 7th International Conference, ICIC 2011, Zhengzhou, China, August 11-14, 2011. Revised Selected Papers, ed. De-Shuang Huang, Yong Gan, Vitoantonio Bevilacqua, and Juan Carlos Figueroa, 33–39. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. Crystal with “Forbidden Symmetry” Found in 4.5-Billion-Year-Old Meteorite. IFLScience. IFLScience. March 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Student Aid Information and Private Tuition-Guarantee Programs. T-PEMD-91-6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swartz, Haley. 2017. The Multitude Speaks in Style: An Analysis of Vernacular Agency through Images of Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, Michael R. 2017. Mattis Beseeches Pacific Officials to ‘Bear With Us.’ New York Times, June 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapuisat 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chapuisat 2014; Chapuisat 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Calka and Wexler 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Guan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics
ISSN (print)1383-4924
ISSN (online)1572-8552
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Linguistics and Language

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