How to format your references using the The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Connelly, J. N. 2010. Geochemistry. Adjusting the solar system’s absolute clock. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327: 422–423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soundararajan, Venky, and Murali Aravamudan. 2014. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy. Scientific reports 4: 7294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dolan, James F., Shari A. Christofferson, and John H. Shaw. 2003. Recognition of paleoearthquakes on the Puente Hills blind thrust fault, California. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 115–118.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, Jae Yong, Kyu-Tae Lee, Sungyong Seo, and L. Jay Guo. 2014. Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors. Scientific reports 4: 4192.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Esmailzadeh, Riaz. 2006. Broadband Wireless Communications Business. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Vasilakos, Athanasios V., Manish Parashar, Stamatis Karnouskos, and Witold Pedrycz, ed. 2009. Autonomic Communication. First. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Lepisto, Eric. 2015. Azerbaijan. In The Education Systems of Europe, ed. Wolfgang Hörner, Hans Döbert, Lutz R. Reuter, and Botho von Kopp, 61–76. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Kepler Team Announces Discovery of Earth-Sized Planet in Habitable Zone. IFLScience. IFLScience. April 17.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. K-12 Education: Federal Funding for and Characteristics of Public Schools with Extended Learning Time. GAO-16-141. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oldham, Carolyn Ann. 2010. An investigation of genre and grammatical positioning in an online community. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, James, and Vivian Wang. 2017. They Don’t Ride the Subway, Though Its Future Rides on Them. New York Times, August 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Connelly 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Connelly 2010; Soundararajan and Aravamudan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Soundararajan and Aravamudan 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics
ISSN (print)1383-4924
ISSN (online)1572-8552
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Linguistics and Language

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