How to format your references using the The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, David. 2002. Manchester merger set to proceed as southerners go solo. Nature 420: 350.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hivon, Eric, and Marc Kamionkowski. 2002. Cosmology. A new window to the early universe. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298: 1349–1350.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rannou, P., F. Hourdin, and C. P. McKay. 2002. A wind origin for Titan’s haze structure. Nature 418: 853–856.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Choudhury, D., B. Pal, A. Sharma, S. V. Bhat, and D. D. Sarma. 2013. Magnetization in electron- and Mn-doped SrTiO3. Scientific reports 3: 1433.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Valière, Jean-Christophe. 2014. Acoustic Particle Velocity Measurements Using Lasers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Karagiannis, Dimitris, Heinrich C. Mayr, and John Mylopoulos, ed. 2016. Domain-Specific Conceptual Modeling: Concepts, Methods and Tools. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Powsner, Seth. 2015. Psychiatric Consultation in the Emergency Setting. In Handbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, ed. Hoyle Leigh and Jon Streltzer, 39–62. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. New Method Actually Cuts HIV Out Of Human DNA. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 22.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. American Samoa: Accountability for Key Federal Grants Needs Improvement. GAO-05-41. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horton, Connie R. 2013. Financial crisis within the nonprofit sector. Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. DeGrom Goes Where No Mets Starter Has This Year: The 9th Inning. New York Times, May 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Adam 2002; Hivon and Kamionkowski 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hivon and Kamionkowski 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Choudhury et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics
ISSN (print)1383-4924
ISSN (online)1572-8552
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Linguistics and Language

Other styles