How to format your references using the The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macarthur, Daniel. 2012. Methods: Face up to false positives. Nature 487: 427–428.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boyet, M., and R. W. Carlson. 2005. 142Nd evidence for early (>4.53 Ga) global differentiation of the silicate Earth. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 576–581.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xing, Lei, Xiaoyan Li, and William D. Snider. 2015. Neurodevelopment. “RASopathic” astrocytes constrain neural plasticity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 348: 636–637.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chan, Simon W-L, Daniel Zilberman, Zhixin Xie, Lisa K. Johansen, James C. Carrington, and Steven E. Jacobsen. 2004. RNA silencing genes control de novo DNA methylation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303: 1336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Concrete and Construction Cl. 2011. Beispiele zur Bemessung Nach Eurocode 2. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Rice, Mason, and Sujeet Shenoi, ed. 2016. Critical Infrastructure Protection X: 10th IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference, ICCIP 2016, Arlington, VA, USA, March 14-16, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 485. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Coronado, Juan M., and María Dolores Hernández-Alonso. 2013. The Keys of Success: TiO2 as a Benchmark Photocatalyst. In Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications, ed. Juan M. Coronado, Fernando Fresno, María D. Hernández-Alonso, and Raquel Portela, 85–101. Green Energy and Technology. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. Do No Harm To Life On Mars? Ethical Limits Of The ‘Prime Directive. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 11.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Basis Used by the Office of Education for Classifying Contracts as Either Competitive or Noncompetitive. B-164031(1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson, Ansley Collin. 2017. A Geophysical and Geological Characterization of the Bonanza 3D Survey, Claiborne Group, Saint Landry and Evangeline Parishes, Louisiana. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2017. Film Series. New York Times, June 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macarthur 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Boyet and Carlson 2005; Macarthur 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boyet and Carlson 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Chan et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics
ISSN (print)1383-4924
ISSN (online)1572-8552
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Linguistics and Language

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