How to format your references using the The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon, John. 2010. The Gonzo Scientist. Galileo in Senegal. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328: 296.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kent, Dennis V., and Lisa Tauxe. 2005. Corrected Late Triassic latitudes for continents adjacent to the North Atlantic. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 240–244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lineweaver, Charles H., Yeshe Fenner, and Brad K. Gibson. 2004. The galactic habitable zone and the age distribution of complex life in the Milky Way. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303: 59–62.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ando, David, Michelle K. Mattson, Jing Xu, and Ajay Gopinathan. 2014. Cooperative protofilament switching emerges from inter-motor interference in multiple-motor transport. Scientific reports 4: 7255.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mattu, Amal, Shamai A. Grossman, and Peter L. Rosen. 2016. Geriatric Emergencies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jardri, Renaud, Arnaud Cachia, Pierre Thomas, and Delphine Pins, ed. 2013. The Neuroscience of Hallucinations. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhattacharya, Niranjan. 2016. Intraamniotic Antigen and Disruption of Human Fetal Growth: A Study from 1978–2002 with Subsequent Follow Up. In Human Fetal Growth and Development: First and Second Trimesters, ed. Niranjan Bhattacharya and Phillip G. Stubblefield, 19–48. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. Doctors Identify 40 Different Treatments That Bring Little Or No Benefit To The Patient. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 24.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak’s Progress in Improving Its Financial Condition Has Been Mixed. RCED-99-181. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryan, Jerry D. 2009. Team development social networking and its impact on the encouragement of spiritual leadership. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J. O. 2016. ‘Friday File’: The Whitney’s 1966 Debut (Now the Met Breuer). New York Times, February 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bohannon 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Kent and Tauxe 2005; Bohannon 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kent and Tauxe 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ando et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics
ISSN (print)1383-4924
ISSN (online)1572-8552
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Linguistics and Language

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