How to format your references using the Frontiers in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shevach, E. M. (2008). Immunology. Regulating suppression. Science 322, 202–203.
A journal article with 2 authors
Discher, D. E., and Eisenberg, A. (2002). Polymer vesicles. Science 297, 967–973.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coulthard, G., Erb, W., and Aggarwal, V. K. (2012). Stereocontrolled organocatalytic synthesis of prostaglandin PGF2α in seven steps. Nature 489, 278–281.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, K. S. Y., Siebert, M., Mertel, S., Knoche, E., Wegener, S., Wichmann, C., et al. (2011). RIM-binding protein, a central part of the active zone, is essential for neurotransmitter release. Science 334, 1565–1569.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silverstein, D., Samuel, P., and Decarlo, N. (2008). The Innovator’s Toolkit. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Badve, S., and Gökmen-Polar, Y. eds. (2016). Molecular Pathology of Breast Cancer. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Borsci, S., Federici, S., Mele, M. L., and Conti, M. (2015). “Short Scales of Satisfaction Assessment: A Proxy to Involve Disabled Users in the Usability Testing of Websites,” in Human-Computer Interaction: Users and Contexts: 17th International Conference, HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part III Lecture Notes in Computer Science., ed. M. Kurosu (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 35–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Thousands Of Walruses Become Refugees From Melting Ice. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). Designing Evaluations: A Workbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitra, A. (2014). Sigma Factor N: A Novel Regulator of Acid Resistance and Locus of Enterocyte Effacement in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina, I. (2015). Video Captures 4 Murders, but Killers Go Unpunished. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shevach, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Discher and Eisenberg, 2002; Shevach, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Discher and Eisenberg, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Education
AbbreviationFront. Educ.
ISSN (online)2504-284X

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