How to format your references using the Frontiers in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paine, R. T. (2002). Trophic control of production in a rocky intertidal community. Science 296, 736–739.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ihinger, P. D., and Zink, S. I. (2000). Determination of relative growth rates of natural quartz crystals. Nature 404, 865–869.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonderer, L. J., Studart, A. R., and Gauckler, L. J. (2008). Bioinspired design and assembly of platelet reinforced polymer films. Science 319, 1069–1073.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tesar, P. J., Chenoweth, J. G., Brook, F. A., Davies, T. J., Evans, E. P., Mack, D. L., et al. (2007). New cell lines from mouse epiblast share defining features with human embryonic stem cells. Nature 448, 196–199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruckmongathan, T. N. (2014). Addressing Techniques of Liquid Crystal Displays. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Huang, D.-S., Gan, Y., Bevilacqua, V., and Figueroa, J. C. eds. (2012). Advanced Intelligent Computing: 7th International Conference, ICIC 2011, Zhengzhou, China, August 11-14, 2011. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Seitz, B., and Langenbucher, A. (2008). “Phototherapeutic Keratectomy in Corneal Dystrophies,” in Cornea and External Eye Disease Essentials in Ophthalmology., eds. T. Reinhard and F. Larkin (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 55–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Four Wildlife Rangers Murdered By Poachers. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Advanced Technology Program: Inherent Factors in Selection Process Are Likely to Limit Identification of Similar Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valencia, G. M. (2015). A Phenomenological Study of Adults Earning a Graduate Degree after Age 60.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2015). Putin Calls Elton John, This Time for Real. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paine, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ihinger and Zink, 2000; Paine, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ihinger and Zink, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Tesar et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Education
AbbreviationFront. Educ.
ISSN (online)2504-284X

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