How to format your references using the Frontiers in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lang, M. (2007). Tough sell. Nature 446, 830.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frégnac, Y., and Laurent, G. (2014). Neuroscience: Where is the brain in the Human Brain Project? Nature 513, 27–29.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Z., Li, H., and Sheng, Y. (2014). Effects of reciprocity on random walks in weighted networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 7460.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Frank, C. G., Sanyal, S., Rush, J. S., Waechter, C. J., and Menon, A. K. (2008). Does Rft1 flip an N-glycan lipid precursor? Nature 454, E3-4; discussion E4-5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bush, J., Harris, D. M., and Parker, R. J. (2016). Cognitive Self Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Oduaran, A., and Bhola, H. S. eds. (2006). WIDENING ACCESS TO EDUCATION AS SOCIAL JUSTICE. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar, H., and Rahman, A. (2016). “Handling Inputs and Events,” in Rapid Game Development Using Cocos2d-JS: An end-to-end guide to 2D game development using JavaScript, ed. A. Rahman (Berkeley, CA: Apress), 41–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Education.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016). “Penis Worm” Mouth Monster: How We Solved A Prehistoric Mystery. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973). Difficulties of the Neighborhood Youth Corps In-School Program and Its Management Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yang, Z. (2017). Primary Isotope Effect on Secondary Kinetic Isotope Effects and Hammett Correlations in Hydride Transfer Reactions.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Undeclared Candidate; Perot Shifts on Homosexuals in Military. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lang, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lang, 2007; Frégnac and Laurent, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frégnac and Laurent, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Frank et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Education
AbbreviationFront. Educ.
ISSN (online)2504-284X

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