How to format your references using the Frontiers in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. (2007). Abbott’s AIDS fight-back. Nature 448, 14.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miyamichi, K., and Luo, L. (2009). Neuroscience. Brain wiring by presorting axons. Science 325, 544–545.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gunanathan, C., Ben-David, Y., and Milstein, D. (2007). Direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines with liberation of H2. Science 317, 790–792.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Posson, D. J., Ge, P., Miller, C., Bezanilla, F., and Selvin, P. R. (2005). Small vertical movement of a K+ channel voltage sensor measured with luminescence energy transfer. Nature 436, 848–851.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pagliaro, M. (2010). Nano-Age. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Siebentritt, S., and Rau, U. eds. (2006). Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rintaluoma, T., Reinikka, T., Rouvinen, J., Boutellier, J., Jääskeläinen, P., and Silvén, O. (2009). “Programmable Accelerators for Reconfigurable Video Decoder,” in Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation: 9th International Workshop, SAMOS 2009, Samos, Greece, July 20-23, 2009. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. K. Bertels, N. Dimopoulos, C. Silvano, and S. Wong (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 36–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). What Came First, The Chicken Or The Egg? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006). Federal Aviation Administration: An Analysis of the Financial Viability of the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hill, J. A. (2012). Classical three-body systems and the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J. (2016). Young Mother Sees Education as a Path to Help Her Daughter. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Check, 2007; Miyamichi and Luo, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miyamichi and Luo, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Posson et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Education
AbbreviationFront. Educ.
ISSN (online)2504-284X

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