How to format your references using the Frontiers in Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz, L. (2013). Cancer immunotherapy. Nature 504, S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haass, C., and Kahle, P. J. (2001). Neuroscience. Parkin and its substrates. Science 293, 224–225.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chou, C.-H., Chuang, J.-K., and Chen, F.-C. (2013). High-performance flexible waveguiding photovoltaics. Sci. Rep. 3, 2244.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Capelluto, D. G. S., Kutateladze, T. G., Habas, R., Finkielstein, C. V., He, X., and Overduin, M. (2002). The DIX domain targets dishevelled to actin stress fibres and vesicular membranes. Nature 419, 726–729.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bender, H. F. (2002). Das Gefahrstoffbuch. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sebban, S., Gautier, J., Ros, D., and Zeitoun, P. eds. (2014). X-Ray Lasers 2012: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, 11–15 June 2012, Paris, France. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, Y. H., and Paquet, A. C. (2005). “Preprocessing Two-Color Spotted Arrays,” in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Solutions Using R and Bioconductor Statistics for Biology and Health., eds. R. Gentleman, V. J. Carey, W. Huber, R. A. Irizarry, and S. Dudoit (New York, NY: Springer), 49–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Education.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Who Lives Longest: Meat Eaters Or Vegetarians? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). School Facilities: America’s Schools Report Differing Conditions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mycroft, D. (2012). Minorities in leadership and financial performance of their Fortune 500 companies.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2005). At Museum Shops, Unusual Selections. New York Times, 14LI12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gravitz, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Gravitz, 2013; Haass and Kahle, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haass and Kahle, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Capelluto et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Education
AbbreviationFront. Educ.
ISSN (online)2504-284X

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