How to format your references using the Fish and Shellfish Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fish and Shellfish Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Moore, PCR: replicating success, Nature. 435 (2005) 235–238.
A journal article with 2 authors
N.O. Hodas, K. Lerman, The simple rules of social contagion, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4343.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.B. Leitch, D.K. Sarko, K.C. Catania, Brain mass and cranial nerve size in shrews and moles, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6241.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.A. Pomeranz Krummel, C. Oubridge, A.K.W. Leung, J. Li, K. Nagai, Crystal structure of human spliceosomal U1 snRNP at 5.5 A resolution, Nature. 458 (2009) 475–480.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Marcus, Supercritical Water, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
T. Chakraborty, ed., Charge Migration in DNA: Perspectives from Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
P.D. Vecchia, The Birth of String Theory, in: M. Gasperini, J. Maharana (Eds.), String Theory and Fundamental Interactions: Gabriele Veneziano and Theoretical Physics: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 59–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fish and Shellfish Immunology.

Blog post
D. Andrew, American Astronauts Drink Their Pee - But Russians Refuse, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Teacher Quality: Survey Results of State Officials on Efforts to Coordinate Teacher Quality Initiatives (GAO-09-594SP, July 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-593, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.M. Stoltzfus, The relationship between teachers’ training transfer and their perceptions of principal leadership style, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L.F. Burghardt, In Great Neck, a Debate On Firefighter Housing, New York Times. (2006) 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFish and Shellfish Immunology
AbbreviationFish Shellfish Immunol.
ISSN (print)1050-4648
ScopeAquatic Science
Environmental Chemistry
General Medicine

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