How to format your references using the Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macneil, J.S., 2000. ECOLOGY: Forest Fire Plan Kindles Debate. Science 289, 1448b–9b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Puszkarski, H., Tomczak, P., 2014. Spin-wave resonance model of surface pinning in ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As thin films. Sci. Rep. 4, 6135.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jaffer, H., Adjei, I.M., Labhasetwar, V., 2013. Optical imaging to map blood-brain barrier leakage. Sci. Rep. 3, 3117.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aizenberg, J., Muller, D.A., Grazul, J.L., Hamann, D.R., 2003. Direct fabrication of large micropatterned single crystals. Science 299, 1205–1208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huber, P.J., 2011. Data Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ourselin, S., Joskowicz, L., Sabuncu, M.R., Unal, G., Wells, W. (Eds.), 2016. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2016: 19th International Conference, Athens, Greece, October 17-21, 2016, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Fontaine, F., Debray, B., Salvi, O., 2007. Protection of Hazardous Installations and Critical Infrastructures - Complementarity of Safety and Security Approaches, in: Linkov, I., Wenning, R.J., Kiker, G.A. (Eds.), Managing Critical Infrastructure Risks: Decision Tools and Applications for Port Security, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 65–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Stunning Flythrough Views of Intact Brains [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. General Aviation: Status of the Industry, Related Infrastructure, and Safety Issues (No. GAO-01-916). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsobrook, J.A., 2013. Music Education in America: A Content Analysis and National Perspective of Standards-Based Outcomes for K–8 General Music (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2016. A TV Show That’s Amazing, Not Necessarily Good. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macneil, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macneil, 2000; Puszkarski and Tomczak, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Puszkarski and Tomczak, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Aizenberg et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
AbbreviationProg. Biophys. Mol. Biol.
ISSN (print)0079-6107
Molecular Biology

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