How to format your references using the Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Purnell BA. 2014. Parenting. A legacy that transcends genes. Introduction. Science 345: 742–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ngai JT and Srivastava DS. 2006. Predators accelerate nutrient cycling in a bromeliad ecosystem. Science 314: 963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen S, Zhang YE, and Long M. 2010. New genes in Drosophila quickly become essential. Science 330: 1682–5.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bai H, Li X, Hu C, et al. 2013. Large-scale, three-dimensional, free-standing, and mesoporous metal oxide networks for high-performance photocatalysis. Sci Rep 3: 2204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson H. 2012. Cable-Stayed Bridges. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Have HT (Ed). 2016. Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhidayasiri R and Tarsy D. 2012. Parkinson’s Disease: Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia. In: Tarsy D (Ed). Movement Disorders: A Video Atlas: A Video Atlas. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Blog post
Davis J. 2016. Vets Call For Ban On Using Homeopathy To Treat Animals Viewed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Transportation Security: DHS Should Address Key Challenges before Implementing the Transportation Worker Identification Credential Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Damiano ES. 2010. The effects of psychological stress on physical health over time.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. 2008. After a 32-Year Journey, Justice Stevens Renounces Capital Punishment. New York Times: A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Purnell 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ngai and Srivastava 2006; Purnell 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ngai and Srivastava 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Bai et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Ecology and the Environment
AbbreviationFront. Ecol. Environ.
ISSN (print)1540-9295
ISSN (online)1540-9309
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles