How to format your references using the Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton DD. 2007. History of science. Hoyle’s equation. Science 318: 1876–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller F-J and Schuppert A. 2011. Few inputs can reprogram biological networks. Nature 478: E4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benton R, Vannice KS, and Vosshall LB. 2007. An essential role for a CD36-related receptor in pheromone detection in Drosophila. Nature 450: 289–93.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Alvarez-Rodriguez U, Sanz M, Lamata L, and Solano E. 2014. Biomimetic cloning of quantum observables. Sci Rep 4: 4910.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pierce DR. 2013. Project Scheduling and Management for Construction. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Choren R, Garcia A, Lucena C, and Romanovsky A (Eds). 2005. Software Engineering for Multi-Agent Systems III: Research Issues and Practical Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Egger C, Dirnhofer R, and Grabherr S. 2016. Postmortem Angiography and the Thanatology of the Vascular System. In: Grabherr S, Grimm JM, Heinemann A (Eds). Atlas of Postmortem Angiography. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2016. Google Tracks The Benefit Of Vaccinations Viewed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Blue Cross FEHBP Pharmacy Benefits. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cheung LC. 2017. Mixture models for left- and interval-censored data and concordance indices for composite survival outcomes.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bosman J, Smith M, and Wines M. 2017. Videos of Police Shootings Give Few Easy Answers. New York Times: A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clayton 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Clayton 2007; Müller and Schuppert 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Müller and Schuppert 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Alvarez-Rodriguez et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Ecology and the Environment
AbbreviationFront. Ecol. Environ.
ISSN (print)1540-9295
ISSN (online)1540-9309
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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