How to format your references using the Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buffett BA. 2010. Geophysics. The enigmatic inner core. Science 328: 982–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bengtson S and Budd G. 2004. Comment on “Small bilaterian fossils from 40 to 55 million years before the Cambrian.” Science 306: 1291; author reply 1291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murakami S, Nagaosa N, and Zhang S-C. 2003. Dissipationless quantum spin current at room temperature. Science 301: 1348–51.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fève G, Mahé A, Berroir J-M, et al. 2007. An on-demand coherent single-electron source. Science 316: 1169–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang L, Peng M, Chang D, and Xu Y. 2016. Dam Failure Mechanisms and Risk Assessment. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Kiayias A and Lipmaa H (Eds). 2012. E-Voting and Identity: Third International Conference, VoteID 2011, Tallinn, Estonia, September 28-30, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Del Rio A and Da Costa FB. 2014. Molecular Approaches to Explore Natural and Food-Compound Modulators in Cancer Epigenetics and Metabolism. In: Martinez-Mayorga K, Medina-Franco JL (Eds). Foodinformatics: Applications of Chemical Information to Food Chemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Man Suffering From Headaches Turns Out To Have A Rare Species Of TAPEWORM Living In His Brain Viewed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Information Technology: VA Actions Needed to Implement Critical Reforms. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brigida MD. 2009. Target stock price runup prior to acquisitions.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. 2016. They’re First-Time Rivals. Their Mothers? Close as Longtime Friends. New York Times: D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buffett 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bengtson and Budd 2004; Buffett 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bengtson and Budd 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Fève et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Ecology and the Environment
AbbreviationFront. Ecol. Environ.
ISSN (print)1540-9295
ISSN (online)1540-9309
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles