How to format your references using the Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nasmyth K. 2002. Segregating sister genomes: the molecular biology of chromosome separation. Science 297: 559–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yan Y and Pennycook SJ. 2000. Atomic structure of the quasicrystal Al72Ni20Co8. Nature 403: 266–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mulch A, Graham SA, and Chamberlain CP. 2006. Hydrogen isotopes in Eocene river gravels and paleoelevation of the Sierra Nevada. Science 313: 87–9.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kovalenko A, Chable-Bessia C, Cantarella G, et al. 2003. The tumour suppressor CYLD negatively regulates NF-kappaB signalling by deubiquitination. Nature 424: 801–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz RA, Carew MG, and Maksimenko T. 2010. Micro Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fassbinder SD, Ii AJN, and Kahn R (Eds). 2012. Greening the Academy: Ecopedagogy Through the Liberal Arts. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Lippitt CD, Stow DA, Toure S, and Vejraska M. 2013. Delineation and Classification of Urban Neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana, from Quickbird Imagery: Manual vs. Semi-automated Approaches. In: Weeks JR, Hill AG, Stoler J (Eds). Spatial Inequalities: Health, Poverty, and Place in Accra, Ghana. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2016. What Are Delusions – And How Best Can We Treat Them? Viewed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Battlefield Automation: Better Justification and Testing Needed for Common Computer Acquisition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson KL. 2017. Putting together the pieces of a social cognition deficit: A retrospective case study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. 2015. A Hilltop Museum, Legacy of a Trailblazing Architect. New York Times: CT10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nasmyth 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Yan and Pennycook 2000; Nasmyth 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yan and Pennycook 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Kovalenko et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Ecology and the Environment
AbbreviationFront. Ecol. Environ.
ISSN (print)1540-9295
ISSN (online)1540-9309
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles