How to format your references using the Journal of Lightwave Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Lightwave Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Laporte, “Recruiters and academia,” Nature, vol. 428, no. 6985, p. 876, Apr. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Akeda and J. E. Galán, “Chaperone release and unfolding of substrates in type III secretion,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7060, pp. 911–915, Oct. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Yi, S. Wei, and G. Hendrey, “Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5472, Jul. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Swingler, B. Brichacek, J.-M. Jacque, C. Ulich, J. Zhou, and M. Stevenson, “HIV-1 Nef intersects the macrophage CD40L signalling pathway to promote resting-cell infection,” Nature, vol. 424, no. 6945, pp. 213–219, Jul. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. R. Baker, Optimization Modeling with Spreadsheets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
A. Amara, T. Ea, and M. Belleville, Eds., Emerging Technologies and Circuits, vol. 66. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Thakker, V. Dimitrova, L. Lau, F. Yang-Turner, and D. Despotakis, “Making Sense of Linked Data: A Semantic Exploration Approach,” in Mastering Data-Intensive Collaboration and Decision Making: Research and practical applications in the Dicode project, N. Karacapilidis, Ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 71–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Scientists Develop A New Method That Might Stop HIV From Replicating,” IFLScience, 23-Mar-2017. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Meal Counting and Claiming by Food Service Management Companies in the School Meal Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-09-156R, Jan. 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. A. Wilson, “An exploratory study of the impact of school-wide positive behavior support on bullying,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Herrman, “Platform Companies Are Becoming More Powerful — but What Exactly Do They Want?,” New York Times, p. MM16, 21-Mar-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Lightwave Technology
AbbreviationJ. Lightwave Technol.
ISSN (print)0733-8724
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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