How to format your references using the Journal of Lightwave Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Lightwave Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Check, “National Academies launch grants for interdisciplinary work,” Nature, vol. 422, no. 6934, p. 791, Apr. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Helffrich and S. Kaneshima, “Seismological constraints on core composition from Fe-O-S liquid immiscibility,” Science, vol. 306, no. 5705, pp. 2239–2242, Dec. 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. K. Lower, M. F. Hochella Jr, and T. J. Beveridge, “Bacterial recognition of mineral surfaces: nanoscale interactions between Shewanella and alpha-FeOOH,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5520, pp. 1360–1363, May 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. I. Poulikakos et al., “RAF inhibitor resistance is mediated by dimerization of aberrantly spliced BRAF(V600E),” Nature, vol. 480, no. 7377, pp. 387–390, Nov. 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.-C. Valière, Acoustic Particle Velocity Measurements Using Lasers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
R. P. Dameri and C. Rosenthal-Sabroux, Eds., Smart City: How to Create Public and Economic Value with High Technology in Urban Space. in Progress in IS. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Rhodes, “Quality Tensions and Endogenous Development,” in Quality and Qualities: Tensions in Education Reforms, C. Acedo, D. Adams, and S. Popa, Eds., Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2012, pp. 69–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Subway’s ‘Chicken’ Contains Just 50 Percent Chicken DNA, Says Investigation,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Discontinuance of Social Security Student Benefits,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 117523, Feb. 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Richey, “Exploration of a Tandem Diels-Alder Ugi-Smiles Reaction,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, “Few Voters Show Up to Elect Two Democrats,” New York Times, p. 14LI2, Apr. 01, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Lightwave Technology
AbbreviationJ. Lightwave Technol.
ISSN (print)0733-8724
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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