How to format your references using the Journal of Lightwave Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Lightwave Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. J. C. Caron, “Eppendorf. Brains don’t play dice--or do they?,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6158, p. 574, Nov. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. K. Keefer and M. C. Larsen, “Geology. Assessing landslide hazards,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5828, pp. 1136–1138, May 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. A. Tarduno, R. D. Cottrell, and A. V. Smirnov, “High geomagnetic intensity during the mid-Cretaceous from Thellier analyses of single plagioclase crystals,” Science, vol. 291, no. 5509, pp. 1779–1783, Mar. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z.-C. Yang, C.-H. Tang, Y. Zhang, H. Gong, X. Li, and J. Wang, “Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2925, Oct. 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. R. Kiehl and M. B. C. Mays, Atlas for the Diagnosis of Tumors in the Dog and Cat. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
C. Batini, Qualità dei Dati: Concetti, Metodi e Tecniche. Milano: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
I. E. Yairi, K. Kayama, and S. Igi, “Robotic Communication Terminals as a Ubiquitous System for Improving Human Mobility by Making Environment Virtually Barrier-Free,” in New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: JSAI 2003 and JSAI 2004 Conferences and Workshops, Niigata, Japan, June 23-27, 2003 and Kanazawa, Japan, May 31 - June 4, 2004, Revised Selected Papers, A. Sakurai, K. Hasida, and K. Nitta, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007, pp. 61–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Two-Headed Alligator Reportedly Spotted In Florida,” IFLScience, 30-Jun-2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Significant Actions Needed to Address Long-standing Financial Management Problems,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-754T, May 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. S. O’Connor, “Measurement of Dispersion and Attenuation in Granular Media using a Filter-Correlation Method,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. B. Stewart, “Profit or Loss,” New York Times, p. BR11, 24-Apr-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Lightwave Technology
AbbreviationJ. Lightwave Technol.
ISSN (print)0733-8724
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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