How to format your references using the Journal of Lightwave Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Lightwave Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Wadman, “Republican candidates clash on fetal tissue in research,” Nature, vol. 403, no. 6771, p. 694, Feb. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Hyman and K. Simons, “A pipeline for Europe,” Nature, vol. 449, no. 7159, p. 256, Sep. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.-P. Hsin, A. Sheth, and J. L. Manley, “RNAP II CTD phosphorylated on threonine-4 is required for histone mRNA 3’ end processing,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6056, pp. 683–686, Nov. 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V. Mack et al., “Conditional restoration of hippocampal synaptic potentiation in Glur-A-deficient mice,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5526, pp. 2501–2504, Jun. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. L. Mittleman, A Short History of Jewish Ethics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
An edited book
V. J. Karplus, Agricultural Biotechnology in China: Origins and Prospects. New York, NY: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Ashish Kumar and Monika Saini, “Comparison of Various Reliability Measures of a Computer System with the Provision of Priority,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing: ICRCWIP-2014, N. Afzalpulkar, V. Srivastava, G. Singh, and D. Bhatnagar, Eds. New Delhi: Springer India, 2016, pp. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Would You Trust Your Nuclear Missiles To A Floppy Disk?,” IFLScience, Jun. 04, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “The Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Request for Radio Frequencies,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-84-158, Aug. 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. R. Loden, “The rhetorical elephant in the room: How three political action committees are strategically [re]defining the U.S. Republican Party,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “It Was a Magical Night, With a Cherry on Top,” New York Times, p. SP2, Jun. 03, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Lightwave Technology
AbbreviationJ. Lightwave Technol.
ISSN (print)0733-8724
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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