How to format your references using the Journal of Lightwave Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Lightwave Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Malakoff, “NUCLEAR ESPIONAGE: Report Details Spying on Touring Scientists,” Science, vol. 288, no. 5475, pp. 2300–2301, Jun. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. D. Egbert and R. D. Ray, “Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred from satellite altimeter data,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6788, pp. 775–778, Jun. 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Koga, H. Tanaka, and X. C. Zeng, “First-order transition in confined water between high-density liquid and low-density amorphous phases,” Nature, vol. 408, no. 6812, pp. 564–567, Nov. 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. T. Ingolia, S. Ghaemmaghami, J. R. S. Newman, and J. S. Weissman, “Genome-wide analysis in vivo of translation with nucleotide resolution using ribosome profiling,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5924, pp. 218–223, Apr. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Matthews, Engineers’ Data Book. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
P. S. Bandyopadhyay, Belief, Evidence, and Uncertainty: Problems of Epistemic Inference, 1st ed. 2016. 1st ed. SpringerBriefs in Philosophy. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Kifer and S. A. Smolka, “Memory: Virtual Memory Management,” in Introduction to Operating System Design and Implementation: The OSP 2 Approach, S. A. Smolka, Ed., in Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science. London: Springer, 2007, pp. 75–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Contact Re-Established With Bill Nye’s LightSail,” IFLScience, Jun. 01, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Poor Preschool-Aged Children: Numbers Increase but Most Not in Preschool,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-93-111BR, Jul. 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Strong, “Investigation and Characterization of Features on a Cretaceous-Paleogene Seismic Horizon in Northern Louisiana,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, “New Life for an Immortal Story,” New York Times, p. BR4, Feb. 03, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Lightwave Technology
AbbreviationJ. Lightwave Technol.
ISSN (print)0733-8724
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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