How to format your references using the Journal of Lightwave Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Lightwave Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. S. Reich, “Whistleblowers at risk as science fails to correct itself,” Nature, vol. 460, no. 7258, p. 949, Aug. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Ordureau and J. W. Harper, “Cell biology: balancing act,” Nature, vol. 510, no. 7505, pp. 347–348, Jun. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. M. Chen, R. M. Friedman, and A. W. Roe, “Optical imaging of a tactile illusion in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5646, pp. 881–885, Oct. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. W. Jang et al., “Metallic and insulating oxide interfaces controlled by electronic correlations,” Science, vol. 331, no. 6019, pp. 886–889, Feb. 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. G. Kunz, Environmental Calculations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.
An edited book
V. K. Mago and V. Dabbaghian, Eds., Computational Models of Complex Systems, vol. 53. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Amamiya, “Agent-Oriented Approach to Ubiquitous Computing,” in Embedded Software and Systems: First International Conference, ICESS 2004, Hangzhou, China, December 9-10, 2004, Revised Selected Papers, Z. Wu, C. Chen, M. Guo, and J. Bu, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, pp. 30–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Physicists Think They May Have Accidentally Discovered Dark Matter,” IFLScience, Jun. 24, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aviation Safety: Better Oversight Would Reduce the Risk of Air Taxi Accidents,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-RCED-92-27, Feb. 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. H. Carrier, “Using Grunig’s Situational Theory for Analysis of Frames in Human Trafficking Awareness Organizations’ YouTube Videos,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, “Drug-Testing Company Tied to N.C.A.A. Stirs Criticism,” New York Times, p. SP1, Jan. 06, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Lightwave Technology
AbbreviationJ. Lightwave Technol.
ISSN (print)0733-8724
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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