How to format your references using the Journal of Lightwave Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Lightwave Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. A. Boisvert, “The pelvic fin and girdle of Panderichthys and the origin of tetrapod locomotion,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7071, pp. 1145–1147, Dec. 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. M. Robinson and J. K. Pfeiffer, “Virology. Leaping the norovirus hurdle,” Science, vol. 346, no. 6210, pp. 700–701, Nov. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. K. Lower, M. F. Hochella Jr, and T. J. Beveridge, “Bacterial recognition of mineral surfaces: nanoscale interactions between Shewanella and alpha-FeOOH,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5520, pp. 1360–1363, May 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Antonini et al., “Unraveling wetting transition through surface textures with X-rays: liquid meniscus penetration phenomena,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4055, Feb. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Hauser, Hygienegerechte Apparate Und Anlagen. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2008.
An edited book
Y. Fujikawa, K. Nakajima, and T. Sakurai, Eds., Frontiers in Materials Research, vol. 10. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Dianteill, “Pierre Bourdieu and the sociology of religion: A central and peripheral concern,” in After Bourdieu: Influence, Critique, Elaboration, D. L. Swartz and V. L. Zolberg, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005, pp. 65–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Lightwave Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “What Flows On Pluto?,” IFLScience, Aug. 20, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Needs Enhanced Oversight and Performance Measures,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-11-745T, Jun. 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W. Yu, “Impacts of storms and sea-level rise on coastal evolution between two capes: Onslow Bay, North Carolina,” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, “‘Stranger Things’ Will Return in 2017,” New York Times, p. C3, Aug. 31, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Lightwave Technology
AbbreviationJ. Lightwave Technol.
ISSN (print)0733-8724
ScopeAtomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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