How to format your references using the Medical Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Recupero DR. Computer science. Toward a green Internet. Science 2013;339:1533–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Briffa KR, Osborn TJ. Paleoclimate. Blowing hot and cold. Science 2002;295:2227–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohde T, Yaginuma T, Niimi T. Insect morphological diversification through the modification of wing serial homologs. Science 2013;340:495–8.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ludwig M-G, Vanek M, Guerini D, et al. Proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors. Nature 2003;425:93–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prutchi D, Prutchi SR. Exploring Quantum Physics Through Hands-On Projects. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012.
An edited book
Ceri S, Brambilla M, editors. Search Computing: Trends and Developments. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Buckland ST, Rexstad EA, Marques TA, et al. Modelling Detection Functions. In: Rexstad EA, Marques TA, Oedekoven CS, eds. Distance Sampling: Methods and Applications. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015. 53–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Humanities.

Blog post
Davis J. April Smashes Temperature Records, Putting 2016 On Track For Hottest Year. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Managing the Costs of Large-Dollar Highway Projects. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joseph S. A comprehensive evaluation of a school system’s grow your own principal preparation program. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. ‘Today’ Host Discussing NBC Exit After Lewd Tape. New York Times. 2016;:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Humanities
AbbreviationMed. Humanit.
ISSN (print)1468-215X
ISSN (online)1473-4265
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles