How to format your references using the Medical Humanities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Humanities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Chapman T. Proteins on the move. Nature 2004;430:111.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Murphy JJ, Melchiorre P. Organic chemistry: Light opens pathways for nickel catalysis. Nature 2015;524:297–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Martianov I, Viville S, Davidson I. RNA polymerase II transcription in murine cells lacking the TATA binding protein. Science 2002;298:1036–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Mukhtasimova N, Lee WY, Wang H-L, et al. Detection and trapping of intermediate states priming nicotinic receptor channel opening. Nature 2009;459:451–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Hackshaw A. A Concise Guide to Observational Studies in Healthcare. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2014.
An edited book
1
Lerer L, Olshevsky V, Spitkovsky IM, editors. Convolution Equations and Singular Integral Operators: Selected Papers of Israel Gohberg and Georg Heinig Israel Gohberg and Nahum Krupnik. Basel: : Birkhäuser 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Allo P. Noisy vs. Merely Equivocal Logics. In: Tanaka K, Berto F, Mares E, et al., eds. Paraconsistency: Logic and Applications. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2013. 57–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Humanities.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Scientists Discover How To ‘Switch Off’ Hunger. IFLScience. 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Next Generation Air Transportation System: FAA and NASA Have Improved Human Factors Research Coordination, but Stronger Leadership Needed. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Hariharan SB. The Structure of the Blue Whirl: A Soot-Free Reacting Vortex Phenomenon. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Kishkovsky S. Russian Publisher Adds Its Own Slant, Writers Say. New York Times. 2015;:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Humanities
AbbreviationMed. Humanit.
ISSN (print)1468-215X
ISSN (online)1473-4265
ScopePhilosophy
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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